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VW Brainstem

IS-B1-Brainstem

QuestionAnswer
The brainstem is comprised of which 3 areas? Midbrain, Pons and Medulla Oblongata
Embryologically, the brainstem developed from the midbrain and the hindbrain. Which areas are in which? Midbrain (mesencephalon), Hindbrain - Metencephalon (pons and cerebellum) and Myelencephalon (medulla).
In the midbrain and pons, the most anterior portion is referred to as the _ part and the posterior portion is referred to as the _. Basilar, Tegmentum
Sitting above the basilar and tegmental regions of the midbrain and pons sits the roof or _. Tectum.
This separates the tectum from the tegmentum The cerebral aqueduct
What cranial nerves are associated with the medulla? CN IX, X, XI and XII (and part of V)
What regions appear in the anterior area of the medulla? Pyramids, Olives
What regions appear in the posterior area of the medulla? Gracile Tubercles and Cuneate Tubercles
these are medial bumps that contain cell bodies that are part of the somatosensory pathway called the PC/ML Gracile Tubercles
these are lateral bumps that contain the cell bodies of the PC/ML pathway Cuneate Tubercles
What regions appear in the lateral area of the medulla? Inferior cerebellar peduncle, cerebellopontine angle, CN VII and VIII
What type of tumor shows up in the cerebellopontine angle? Why are they important? vestibular schwannomas - damages CN VIII and eventually VII. Acoustics and Facial Nerve
This level of the medulla has a level of motor decussation and a level of sensory decussation. Which, motor or sensory, is most rostral? Caudal Medulla, Sensory Decussation Area
What structures are found within the caudal medulla? Pyramidal decussation, spinal trigeminal tract and nucleus, fasciculus cuneatus, fasciculus gracilis, the ALS and Anterior and Posterior Spinocerebellar tracts
this is where axons of descending UMNs in the corticospinal tracts leave the pyramids, cross over to contralateral side and become the lateral corticospinal tracts in the lateral funiculus of the spinal cord. Motor (Pyramidal) Decussation
this is axons relaying sensory information from the face Spinal trigeminal tract
this structure consists of cell bodies that synapse with axons carrying information from the face to relay to the cortical areas. Spinal trigeminal nucleus
This structure comes from the SC containing sensory axons relaying tactile, vibratory sense from the upper half of the body Fasciculus cuneatus
This structure comes from the SC containing sensory axons relaying tactile and vibratory sense from the lower half of the body Fasciculus gracilis
This structure comes from the SC containing spinothalamic axons that are relaying pain and temp info from the contralateral body to the thalamus ALS
This structure comes from the SC and relays muscle proprioceptive information to the cerebellum Anterior and Posterior Spinocerebellar tracts
This structure contains cell bodies whose axons will travel through as internal arcuate fibers and cross to the contralateral side - then axons change name to Medial Lemniscus, ascending to thalamus with tactile and vibratory sense from the body. Nucleus Cuneatus and Gracilus
True or false - the PC/ML is the only sensory pathway crossing in the caudal medulla? TRUE
This structure contains corticospinal axons that descend to the SC. Pyramids
The Mid Medulla contains the nuclei of what cranial nerves? CN IX, X and XII
What structures are found in the caudal medulla - sensory decussation region? Pyramids, medial lemniscus, ASCT, PSCT, ALS, Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus and Tract, Nucleus and Fasciculus Cuneatus and Gracilis
What structures are found in the mid medulla? Pyramids, medial lemniscus, Inferior Olivary Nucleus, Olive, ASCT, Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle, Solitary tract and nucleus, nucleus ambiguus, ALS, Spinal Trigeminal tract and nucleus, Dorsal Motor nucleus of the vagus, hypoglossal nucleus, MLF
This structure contains the cell bodies of CN XII that innervate the ipsilateral tongue muscles Hypoglossal Nucleus
Where does the hypoglossal nerve exit? Between the pyramid and the olive
This structure contains preganglionic parasympathetic cell bodies for CN X The dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus
This structure receives sensory input from CN VII, IX and X Solitary nucleus and solitary tract
This structure is a long axonal tract that coordinates left and right eye movements MLF - medial longitudinal fasciculus
This structure contains cell bodies of the part of CN IX and X whose axons innervate the larynx and pharynx muscles. Nucleus Ambiguus (NA)
This structure contains the axons that were in the posterior spinocerebellar tract that entered the structure on their way to the cerebellum. Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle
This structure contains cell bodies that receive info form several sources then project to cerebellum. Inferior Olivary nucleus
What new structures appear in the Rostral Medulla? Inferior and Medial Vestibular nuclei and Dorsal and Ventral Cochlear Nuclei
These structures contain cell bodies that are part of the CN VIII auditory portion Dorsal and Ventral Cochlear nuclei
These structures contain cell bodies that are part of the CN VIII vestibular portion Inferior and Medial Vestibular nuclei
Within the reticular formation, there is a region called the _ nuclei which contain serotonin (5HT), enkephalin and CCK which help block the transmission of pain info traveling to the cortex. Raphe nuclei
What are the major sources of blood supply to the caudal medulla? Anterior spinal artery, vertebral artery, PICA and Posterior Spinal Artery
What are the major sources of blood supply to the mid medulla? Anterior spinal artery, vertebral artery, PICA
What are the major sources of blood supply to the rostral medulla? Anterior spinal artery, vertebral artery, carotid artery and AICA
The tegmental portion of the pons contains sensory and motor nuclei from which 4 CN's? CN V, VI, VII, VIII
What structures are new to the caudal pons? CN VI nucleus, CN VII nucleus, middle cerebellar peduncle, superior olivary nucleus, lateral lemniscus, trapezoid body, pontine nuclei
The facial colliculus describes the cell bodies of which CN? VI - it's a misnomer.
What structures seen in the medulla continue into the caudal pons? ALS, ASCT, MLF, Medial Lemniscus, Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle, Spinal Trigeminal Tract and Nucleus, Medial and Inferior Vestibular Nuclei
This contains cell bodies of the cranial nerve whose axons innervate the lateral rectus extraocular muscle Abducens Nucleus
This contains cell bodies of the cranial nerve whose axons innervate the ipsilateral facial expression muscles Facial Nucleus
These three structures in the caudal pons comprise part of the auditory pathway Superior olivary nucleus, lateral lemniscus, trapezoid body
The superior olivary nucleus, lateral lemniscus and trapezoid body in the caudal pons comprise what pathway? Auditory pathway
This structure contains cell bodies and some of the axons that will project into the cerebellum via the middle cerebellar peduncle Pontine nuclei
This contains axons of upper motor cortical neurons that will descend into the medullary pyramids Corticospinal tracts
The trigeminal motor nucleus is located where in the pons? Mid Pons
This structure contains cell bodies whose axons will innervate the muscles of chewing Trigeminal Motor Nucleus
This structure contains cell bodies receiving tactile and vibratory sense from the face Principal Sensory Nucleus
This structure contains pseudounipolar neurons relaying proprioceptive information from the mastication muscles Mesencephalic nucleus and tract
What are the names of the transverse fibers in the pontine nucleus? Pontocerebellar fibers
This structure in the rostral pons contains axons entering and leaving the cerebellum. Superior cerebellar peduncle
This structure contains cell bodies which contain noradrenaline and their axons project throughout the CNS. Locus Ceruleus
These cell bodies have a smokey blue appearance and have low discharge rates during sleep / high discharge rates during stress. Locus Ceruleus
What artery and branches supply blood to the pons? Basilar artery - paramedian, short and long circumferential branches
The CN nerve nuclei that are located in the midbrain are: CN III and IV
True or false - the midbrain has a tectum, but not a tegmentum. FALSE - it has both
The midbrain includes what three regions? Tectum, tegmentum and basis pedunculi
What can be seen on the posterior view of the midbrain? Superior and Inferior colliculi
Caudal Midbrain contains which new structures? Inferior colliculus, cerebral aqueduct, periaquaductal gray, trochlear nucleus, decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles, substantia nigra, cerebral peduncles
This structure in the caudal midbrain is part of the auditory pathway Inferior colliculus
This structure in the caudal midbrain is part of the ventricular system Cerebral aqueduct
This structure in the caudal midbrain contains cell bodies which contain enkephalins that block pain transmission Periaquaductal gray
This structure in the caudal midbrain contains cell bodies of the CN _ which innervate the superior oblique muscle of the eye. Trochlear nucleus - CN IV
This structure in the caudal midbrain contains axons exiting the cerebellum via the superior cerebellar peduncles that will cross and either ascend to cortex or synapse in red nucleus Decussation of Superior cerebellar peduncles
This structure in the caudal midbrain is part of the basal ganglia whose cell bodies contain dopamine and when they die, exhibit Parkinson's disease. Substantia Nigra
This structure in the caudal midbrain contains axons in the middle 3/5 that are part of the corticospinal tracts (UMN's descending) Cerebral Peduncles
This structure in the rostral midbrain is part of the visual system Superior colliculus
This structure in the rostral midbrain contains cell bodies that project their axons to innervate 4 extra-ocular muscles Oculomotor nucleus (CN III)
The parasympathetic nucleus to CN III is called the _-_ nucleus which contains preganglionic parasympathetic cell bodies whose axons synapse on the ciliary ganglion and will cause pupillary constriction. Edinger-Westphal nucleus
Where do the axons of the Oculomotor nuclei exit? Between the 2 cerebral peduncles
This structure in the rostral midbrain contains cell bodies which project their axons as the rubrospinal tract which influences LMN's Red Nucleus
Which vessels supply blood to the midbrain? Basilar artery, superior cerebral artery, posterior cerebral artery, Quardrigeminal artery, superior cerebellar artery
Created by: cherubicsiren
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