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MMT Ch 12

Medical Terminology Nervous System WGU

acalculia inability to perform mathematical calculations
AD alzheimer disease, progressive, neurodegenerative disease in which patients eshibit an impairment of cognitive functioning
afferent of nerves and nerve impulses, bringing toward or into
ageusia inability to taste
agnosia inability to recognize objects by use of the senses
agraphia a loss of the ability to write or to express thoughts in writing because of a brain lesion
ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
amnesia partial or total loss of memory
anosmia absence of the sense of smell (as by damage to olfactory nasal tissue or the olfactory nerve or by obstruction of the nasal passages)
ANS SNS (fight or flight) +PNS (rest & digest)
aphasia inability to use or understand language (spoken or written) because of a brain lesion
apraxia inability to make purposeful movements
astrocytes largest, most numerous glial cells; maintain blood-brain barrier to isolate CNS from general circulation; provide structural support for CNS; regulate ion and nutrient concentrations; perform repairs to stabilize tissue and prevent further injury
astrocytoma star-shaped tumor that usually develops in the cerebrum; frequently in people younger than 20 years old
athetosis a continuous succession of slow writing involuntary movements of the hands and feet and other body parts
aura premonitory awareness of an approaching physical or mental disorder; peculiar sensation that precedes seizures
autonomic system the part of the nervous system of vertebrates that controls involuntary actions of the smooth muscles and heart and glands
axon long fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body of a neuron
babinski reflex reflex in which babies will fan out their toes when you touch the sole of their feet
BBB the barrier that strictly regulates what substances can enter the interstitial fluid of the brain; keeps neurons in the brain from being exposed to drugs and wastes in the blood and varying levels of normal substances that could affect the brain
Bell palsy temporary paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve that causes drooping only on the affected side of the face
brain scan image of the brain taken after injection of radioactive isotopes into the circulation
brain cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, brainstem
brainstem midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
carotid endarterectomy the surgical removal of the lining of a portion of a clogged carotid artery leading to the brain
cauda equina collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
central nervous system the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
cerebellum coordinates voluntary movement but is involuntary in its function (muscle memory)
cerebral angiography X-ray record of blood vessels in the brain after intravenous injection of contrast material.
cerebral contusion Bruising of brain tissue as a result of direct trauma to the head; neurologic deficits persist longer than 24 hours
cerebral cortex made up of gray matter, covers the hemispheres
cerebral cortex the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
cerebrum area of the brain responsible for all voluntary activities of the body
cerebrum the largest portion of the brain, responsible for thinking, reasoning, and memory
coma a state of deep and often prolonged unconsciousness
concussion injury to the brain caused by a blow
cordotomy cutting of nerve fibers to relieve intractable pain
CP cerebral palsy
craniectomy excision of part of the skull to approach the brain
craniotomy incision of the skull
CSF cerebral spinal fluid, located in ventricles and the subarachnoid space
CVA cerebrovascular accident
dendrites branching extensions of neuron that receives messages from neighboring neurons
dermatomes skin surface areas supplied by a single afferent spinal nerve
diencephalon thalamus and hypothalamus
diplegia paralysis of corresponding parts on both sides of the body
DTR deep tendon reflexes
dyslexia a learning disability that results in difficulty reading and writing
dysphagia difficulty swallowing
dyssomnia difficulty with the sleep-wake cycle
echoencephalography a noninvasive diagnostic procedure that uses ultrasound to study the anatomy of the brain
EEG electroencephalogram
efferent conducting outward, away from
encephalitis inflammation of the brain usually caused by a virus
EP evoked potential
epilepsy a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by loss of consciousness and convulsions
fasciculation muscular twitching of contiguous groups of muscle fibers
frontal lobe controls functions of speech and the motor area control voluntary movement on the contralateral side of the body
gait manner of walking
GARS gait assessment rating scale
glia cells that support, nurture, and insulate neurons, remove debris when neurons die, enhance the formation and maintenance of neural connections, and modify neuronal functioning
gray matter cell bodies of motor neurons
gray matter greyish nervous tissue containing cell bodies as well as fibers
Guillain-Barre syndrome autoimmune condition that causes acute inflammation of the peripheral nerves in which myelin sheaths on the axons are destroyed, resulting in decreased nerve impulses, loss of reflex response, and sudden muscle weakness
gyri elevated ridges on cortical surface of the cerebral hemisphere, which increase the surface area and provide space for additional cortical neurons
hemiparesis weakness on one side of the body
hemiplegia paralysis of one side of the body
HIVD herniated intervertebral disk
homeostasis process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
huntington chorea Inherited disease of the CNS that usually has its onset in people between 30 and 50 years of age. This disease is characterized by quick, involuntary movements, speech disturbances, and mental deterioration.
hydrocephalus n abnormal condition in which cerebrospinal fluid collects in the ventricles of the brain
hypokinesia abnormally decreased muscle function or activity
hypothalamus controls peripheral autonomic nervous system, as well as body temperature, sleep, and appetite
lobes the different regions into which the cerebral cortex is divided
LP lumbar puncture
medulla oblongata regulates heart rate, blood pressure, breathing
medulloblastoma malignant tumor cerebellum; invades fourth ventricle
meninges protective covering composed of dura mater, arachnoid membrane, and pia mater
meningioma benign tumor of the meninges
meningitis infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the meninges (the tissues that surround the brain or spinal cord) usually caused by a bacterial infection
midbrain site of reflex centers for eye and head movements
migraine a severe recurring vascular headache
monoparesis slight paralysis of one (limb)
monoplegia paralysis of a single limb
MS multiple sclerosis
MSLT multiple sleep latency test
myelin a white fatty substance that forms a medullary sheath around the axis cylinder of some nerve fibers
myelography roentgenography of the spinal cord to detect possible lesions (usually after injection of a contrast medium into the subarachnoid space)
narcolepsy a sleep disorder characterized by sudden and uncontrollable episodes of deep sleep
nerve block chemical interruption of a nerve pathway effected by injecting a local anesthetic
nerve roots where 31 pairs of spinal nerves emerge from spinal chord
neural impulse action potential
neuralgia acute spasmodic pain along the course of one or more nerves
neurectomy excision of a nerve
neuritis inflammation of a nerve accompanied by pain and sometimes loss of function
neuroblastoma malignant tumor containing embryonic nerve cells
neuroendoscopy use of a fiberoptic camera to visualize neural structures; used for placing a shunt in hydrocephalic patients
neurofibroma tumor of the fibrous covering of a peripheral nerve
neuroglia non-conducting cells of nervous tissue with supportive and metabolic functions
neurolysis destruction of a nerve
neuroma any tumor derived from cells of the nervous system
neurons nerve cells
neuroplasty surgical repair of a nerve
neurorrhaphy suture of a nerve
neurotomy incision into a nerve
neurotransmitters chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons
occipital lobe vision
parageusia Perversion of taste in which substances possess an unpleasant flavor.
paraparesis a slight paralysis or weakness of both legs
paraplegia paralysis of the lower half of the body (most often as a result of trauma)
paresthesia abnormal skin sensations (as tingling or tickling or itching or burning) usually associated with peripheral nerve damage
parietal lobe touch and taste
PD parkinson's disease
peripheral nervous system 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
peripheral nervous system The section of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord
PET positron emission tomography
plexus a network formed by the nerve fibers of several nerves
polyneuritis inflammation of many or all of the peripheral nerves (as in leprosy)
pons bridge between cerebrum and medulla oblongata
PSG polysomnography
quadriparesis Weakness of all four limbs, both arms and both legs
quadriplegia paralysis of both arms and both legs
radiculitis an inflammation of the root of a spinal nerve that causes pain and numbness radiating down the affected limb; also known as a pinched nerve
rizotomy sensory nerve roots are destroyed.
schwann cells Supporting cells of the peripheral nervous system responsible for the formation of myelin.
sciatica neuralgia along the sciatic nerve
seizure sudden, transient disturbances in brain function resulting from abnormal firing of nerve impulses (may or may not be associated with convulsion)
shingles viral disease that affects the peripheral nerves and caused blisters on the skin that follow the course of the affected nerves
somatic system the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
spasm a painful and involuntary muscular contraction
SPECT single photon emission computed tomography
spina bifida a not uncommon congenital defect in which a vertebra is malformed, congenital defect in the spinal column characterized by the absence of vertebral arches, often resulting in pouching of spinal membranes or tissue
spinal cord a major part of the central nervous system which conducts sensory and motor nerve impulses to and from the brain
spinal nerves cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal
stereotaxic radio-surgery surgery using radiowaves to localize structures within a 3D space
stimulus something that causes a response
sulci shallow grooves that separate gyri
sympathectomy surgical interruption of a nerve pathway in the sympathetic nervous system
synapse the junction between two neurons (axon-to-dendrite) or between a neuron and a muscle
syncope a spontaneous loss of consciousness caused by insufficient blood to the brain
Tay-sachs disease A human genetic disease caused by a recessive allele for a dysfunctional enzyme, leading to accumulation of certain lipids in the brain. Seizures, blindness, and degeneration of motor and mental performance usually become manifest a few months after birth
temporal lobe auditory and olfactory areas
TENS transcutaneaous electrical nerve stimulation
terminal fibers the branching fibers at the end of the axon that lead the nervous impulse from the axon to the synapse
thalamus relays sensory information and translates it into sensations of pain, temperature and touch
TIA brief episode in which the brain gets insufficient blood supply
Tourette syndrome Disorder of multiple motor and vocal tics
vagotomy Incision of the vagus nerve
ventriculoperitonostomy procedure to drain fluid from the brain ventricles through a shunt, catheter, and valve that leads to the abdominal cavity.
ventriculostomy A surgical hole in the head to the level of the cerebral ventricle; usually done to relieve elevated intracranial pressure and brainstem herniation.
vertigo a reeling sensation
white matter myelin covered axons that extend from the nerve cell bodies
Created by: DRIOS2