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MMT Ch 10

Medical Terminology Cardiovascular System WGU

AF atrial fibrillation
AICD automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator
aneurysm the balooning out of an artery wall at a point where it has grown weak
angina pectoris a heart condition marked by paroxysms of chest pain due to reduced oxygen to the heart
angiocardiography The process of recording the heart and vessels after an intravenous injection of a radiopaque solution
aorta the large trunk artery that carries blood from the left ventricle of the heart to branch arteries
aorta the large trunk artery that carries blood from the left ventricle of the heart to branch arteries
aortic semilunar valve located between the left ventricle and the aorta
arrhythmia Abnormal heart rhythm
arteries blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
arterioles small vessels that receive blood from the arteries
arterosclerosis hardening of the arteries
AS arteriosclerosis
atherectomy excision of fatty plaque
atheroma a fatty deposit in the intima (inner lining) of an artery
atherosclerosis a stage of arteriosclerosis involving fatty deposits (atheromas) inside the arterial walls
atria the two upper chambers of the heart- the receiving areas that pool incoming blood.
atrial myxoma Benign growth usually occurring on the interatrial septum.
atypical pain a stabbing or burning pain that is variable in location and intensity and unrelated to exertion
AV block interrupts signal delivery to ventricles
AV node Atrio-ventricular node, picks up electrical impulse from the SA node and causes ventricles to contract, causing blood to move into arteries
BBB Bundle Branch Block
bicuspid valve located between the left atrium and left ventricle
BP blood pressure
bradycardia abnormally slow heartbeat
bruit noise; an abnormal heart sound caused by turbulence within
bundle of His a bundle of modified heart muscle that transmits the cardiac impulse from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles causing them to contract
CABG open-heart surgery in which the rib cage is opened and a section of a blood vessel is grafted from the aorta to the coronary artery to bypass the blocked section of the coronary artery and improve the blood supply to the heart
CAD coronary artery disease
capillaries tiny vessels that join arterioles and venules, tiny, thin-walled blood vessels that allow the exchange of gases and nutrients between the blood and the cells of the body
cardiac catheterization procedure where a catheter is inserted into an artery and guided into the heart; may be used for diagnosis of blockages or treatment
cardiac defibrillator Either external or implantable device that provides an electronic shock to the heart to restore a normal rhythm
cardiac enzymes LDH and CPK
cardiac myxosarcoma Rare cancer of the hear usually originating in the left atrium
cardiac pacemaker a specialized bit of heart tissue that controls the heartbeat
cardiac tamponade mechanical compression of the heart resulting from large amounts of fluid collecting in the pericardial space and limiting the heart's normal range of motion
cardialgia heart pain
cardiodynia pain in the heart
cardiomegaly an abnormal enlargement of the heart
cardiomyopathy a disorder (usually of unknown origin) of the heart muscle (myocardium)
Cardiovascular of or pertaining to or involving the heart and blood vessels
CHF congestive heart failure
claudication weakness of the legs accompanied by cramp-like pain in the calves caused by poor circulation of the blood to the leg muscles
coartation of the aorta narrowing of the aorta before or after the ductus arteriosus causing less perfusion of the lower body
commissurotomy surgical separation of the leaflets of the mitral valve, which have fused together at their "commissures" (points of touching)
coronary arteries blood vessels that branch from the aorta and carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle
CPR an emergency procedure consisting of external cardiac massage and artificial respiration
cyanosis a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes
diaphoresis profuse sweating
diastole relaxation
DOE Dyspnea on exertion
DSA digital subraction angiography; contrast imaging is used to subtract the noncrast image of surrounding structures to image vessels
dyspnea difficult or labored respiration
ECC extracorporeal circulation, use of a cardiopulmonary machine to do the work of the heart during open heart procedures
echocardiography a noninvasive diagnostic procedure that uses ultrasound to study to structure and motions of the heart
ectopic beats When other areas of the heart initiate a heart beat. The appearance of the ECG does change.
edema swelling from excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue
ejection fraction measurement of the volume percentage of left ventricular contents ejected with each contraction, measurement of the volume percentage of left ventricular contents ejected with each contraction
EKG electrocardiograph: used to measure the heartbeat by electrical potential
emesis vomiting
endocarditis inflammation of the endocardium and heart valves
endocardium the membrane that lines the cavities of the heart and forms part of the heart valves
epicardium the innermost of the two layers of the pericardium
esophageal varices swollen, twisted veins in the esophagus especially susceptible to ulceration and hemorrhage
EST Exercise Stress Test
EVLT endovenous laser ablation
flutter abnormally rapid beating of the auricles of the heart (especially in a regular rhythm)
heart rate the rate at which the heart beats
hemangioma benign angioma consisting of a mass of blood vessels
hemangiosarcoma A malignant tumor of the blood vessels, usually occurring in the skin, liver, spleen, right atrium of the heart, and muscle; also called angiosarcoma.
hemorrhoid swollen, twisted vein (varicosity) in the anal region (haimorrhois = a vein likely to bleed)
hemorrhoidectomy surgical procedure for tying hemorrhoids and excising them
Holter monitor a portable electrocardiograph that is worn by an ambulatory patient to continuously monitor the heart rates and rhythms over a 24-hour period
hypertension a common disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater)
hypotension abnormally low blood pressure
inferior vena cava receives blood from lower limbs and abdominal organs and empties into the posterior part of the right atrium of the heart
ischemic pain Angina of MI
Diffuse, retrosternal OR -
Tightness, achiness in chest
With dyspnea, sweating, indigestion, dizziness, syncope, anxiety
left atrium the left upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the pulmonary veins
left ventricle the chamber on the left side of the heart that receives arterial blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the aorta
lipid profile cholesterol & triglycerides
LVAD left ventricular assist device (bridge to cardiac transplantation)
MI myocardial infarction
MIDCAB minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass
mitral valve a valve in the heart that guards the opening between the left atrium and the left ventricle, located between the left atrium and left ventricle
MR ...
MS ...
MUGA scan imaging motion of heart wall muscles and assessing the function of the heart via a multiple-gated acquisition scan, which uses radioactive chemicals
murmur an abnormal sound of the heart
MVP mitral valve prolapsed
myocardial perfusion imaging Use radionuclide to diagnose CAD, valvular or congenital heart disease, and cardiomyopathy.
myocardium the middle muscular layer of the heart wall
nausea urge to vomit
NSR normal sinus rhythm (of the heart)
orthopnea form of dyspnea in which the person can breathe comfortably only when standing or sitting erect
oxygenation oxygen saturation
PACAB Port-access coronar artery bypass; heart is stopped and surgery is accomplished through small incision in chest
pallor paleness
palpitations pounding, racing heartbeat
parietal pericardium the tough outermost layer of the pericardium that is attached to the diaphragm and the sternum
parietal relating to the wall of any cavity or to the parietal bone of the skull
PDA patent ductus arteriosus
pericardiocentesis surgical puncture of the membrane surrounding the heart in order to remove fluid
pericarditis inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart
pericardium a double-layered serous membrane that surrounds the heart
peripheral arterial occlusion Blockage of bloof flow to the extremities. Acute or chronic conditions may be present, but patients with both types of conditions are likely to have underlying atherosclerosis.
PET positron emission tomography
phlebectomy surgical removal or all or part of a vein
phlebography X-ray of the veins after injecting a contrast medium
phlebotomy venipuncture
PICC peripherally inserted central catheter, Placement is done under sterile conditions at baseline of upper arm circumference using the cephallic or basillic vein.
pneumatic of the lungs
precordial pain chest pain over the heart and lower thorax
precordium an area of the chest overlying the heart
PTCA percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood out of the right ventricle and into the lungs
pulmonary circulation circulation of blood from the pulmonary artery through the vessels in the lungs and back to the heart via the pulmonary vein, providing for the exchange of gases
pulmonary congestion excess fluid in the lungs, airspaces, and pulmonary edema. low gas exchange. increase risk of infection like pneumonia
pulmonary semilunar valve heart valve opening from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery
pulmonary veins deliver oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium
Purkinje fibers The smallest (and final) fibers in the cardiac conduction system. The Purkinje fibers transmit the cardiac impulse to the ventricular muscle.
PVD peripheral vascular disease
Raynaud disease Recurrent episodes of pallor and cyanosis primarily in fingers and toes
RFCA radiofrequency catheter ablation
right atrium the right upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the venae cavae and coronary sinus
right ventricle the chamber on the right side of the heart that receives venous blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary trunk
SA node Sino-atrial node, the pace-maker of the heart; where the impulse conduction of the heart usually starts; located in the top of the right atrium
sclerotherapy injection of a chemical irritant (sclerosing agent) into a vein to produce inflammation and fibrosis that destroys the lumen of the vein
septa thin wall that separates cavities or masses; in the heart, septa separate the right atrium from the left atrium and the right ventricle from the left ventricle
septal defect a congenital abnormality in the septum between the left and right sides of the heart
SK streptokinase
SOB shortness of breath
SSS Sick Sinus Syndrom
superior vena cava receives blood from the head and arms and chest and empties into the right atrium of the heart
Swan-Ganz catheter central venous catheter, Used to determine: pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP); Inserted through subclavian vein and advanced to rt. atrium to pulmonary Artery
syncope a spontaneous loss of consciousness caused by insufficient blood to the brain
systemic circulation circulation of blood throughout the body through arteries, arterioles, capillaries, and veins to deliver oxygen and nutrients to body tissues
systole contraction
tachycardia abnormally rapid heartbeat (over 100 beats per minute)
TDN transdermal nitroglycerin
TEA thromboendarterectomy
tetralogy of Fallot Combination of four congenital anomalies: pulmonary stenosis, an interventricular septal defect, abnormal blood supply to the aorta, and hypertrophy of the right ventricle. Needs immediate surgery to correct.
thrill a fine vibration, felt by an examiner's hand on a patient's body over the site of an aneurysm or on the precordium, resulting from turmoil in the flow of blood and indicating the presence of an organic murmur of grade 4 or greater intensity.
thrombophlebitis phlebitis in conjunction with the formation of a blood clot (thrombus), inflammation of a vein associated with a clot formation
TMR transmyocardial revascularization
TMR transmyocardial revascularization
tricuspid valve valve with three cusps, valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle
tricuspid valve between right atrium and right ventricle
VAD Ventricular assist device, assists weakened heart to pump sufficient blood throughout the body. It is referred to as "a bridge to transplant" because client uses it while waiting for a heart transplant.
valves flaps of tissue that open and close to allow the flow of blood in one direction only. The heart's valves are located at the entrances and exits of its chambers
valvulitis inflammation of a valve (especially of a cardiac valve as a consequence of rheumatic fever)
valvuloplasty surgical repair of a valve
varicose veins Abnormally swollen and twisted veins, usually occuring in the legs
vasculitis inflammation of a blood vessel
veins blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
venous distension Enlarged or swollen veins.
ventricles the two lower chambers of the heart, and they pump blood out to the lungs and body.
ventricular tachycardia a very rapid heartbeat that begins within the ventricles, A life-threatening dysrhythmia because of the decreased cardiac output and the potential to deteriorate into ventricular fibrillation.
venules small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins
VF ventricular fibrillation
visceral pericardium the innermost of the two layers of the pericardium
Created by: DRIOS2