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MMT Ch 14

Medical Terminology Eye and Ear WGU

opthalmology diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the eye
optometry measurement of vision and adaptation of lenses
audiology diagnosis, treatment and prevention of hearing disorders
orbit the bony cavity in the skull containing the eyeball
binocular of two eyes
eyebrows protect the eyes by preventing perspiration and shade the eyes from direct sunlight
canthi inner and outer corners of the eye
palpebral fissure the area where the upper an lower eyelids meet
palpebration blinking
conjunctiva a transparent membrane covering the eyeball and under surface of the eyelid
tears these function to lubricate the eye, wash away debris, provide oxygen and nourish the cornea/conjunctiva
lacrimal gland any of the glands in the eyes that secrete tears
meibomian glands sebaceous glands for the eyelashes
lacrimal sacs collect tears from the corner of each eyelid and drain them into the nasal cavity
nasolacrimal ducts two small ducts drain tears into the nasal cavity
extraocular muscles 3 pairs of muscles that control the movement of the eyes
fibrous tunic the outermost layer of the eye, consisting of the cornea and sclera and connecting with eye muscles
sclera tough, fibrous, white outer coat extending from the cornea to the optic nerve
cornea transparent anterior portion of the outer covering of the eye
vascular tunic choroid, ciliary body, iris
uvea the part of the eye that contains the iris and ciliary body and choroid
choroid a highly vascular membrane in the eye between the retina and the sclera
ciliary body ring of muscle behind the peripheral iris that controls the focusing shape of the lens
iris muscular diaphragm that controls the size of the pupil
nervous tunic retina
retina ..., the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
refraction bending of a ray of light
acommodation process by which the eyes lens changes shape to focus near or far
limbus the border between the cornea and the sclera
pupil the dark area in the center of the iris where the light continues its progress through to the lens
lens a transparent optical device used to converge or diverge transmitted light and to form images
aqueous humor watery liquid found in the anterior cavity of the eye
vitreous humor jellylike substance found behind the lens in the posterior cavity of the eye that maintains its shape
rods retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond
cones retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
macula lutea a yellow spot on the retina that mediates the clearest, most detailed vision
fovea area consisting of a small depression in the retina containing cones and where vision is most acute
optic disk The 'blind spot' of the eye, this is where the axons of the ganglion cells exist the retinal to form the optic nerve. There are no photoreceptors in the optic disk.
cyclic of the ciliary body
ocular of the eye
dacryoadenal of the lacrimal gland
dacryocystic of the lacrimal sac
phak/o, phac/o of the lens
papillary of the optic disk
lacrimal of tears
optic of vision
blephar of the eyelid
blepharedema swelling of the eyelid
bleparochalasis hypertrophy of the skin of the eyelid
blepharoptosis drooping of the upper eyelid
ectropion eversion of the eyelid, exposing the conjunctiva
entropion inversion of the eyelid toward the eye
chalazion Meibomian cyst, hardened swelling of the
meibomian gland resulting from a blockage.
hordeolum stye, infection of one of the sebaceous glands of the eyelash
dacryoadenitis inflammation of the lacrimal gland
dacryocystitis inflammation of the lacrimal sac
epiphora excessive lacrimation
xerophtalmia dry eye, lack of adequate tear production to lubricate the eye, usually the result of a vitamin A deficiency
conjunctivitis pinkeye, inflammation to the conjunctiva, a highly contagious disorder
ophthalmia neonatorum severe, purulent conjunctivitis in the newborn, usually due to gonorrheal or chlamydial infection. routine introduction of an antibiotic ophtalmic ointment (eyrthromycin) prevents most cases
amblyopia dull or dime vision due to disuse
diplopia double vision
emmetropia normal vision
exophthalmia protrusion of the eyeball from its orbit
photophobia extreme sensitivity to, and discomfort from, light
strabismus lack of coordination between the eyes, usually due to a muscle weakness or paralysis
esotropia turning inward of one or both eyes
astigmatism malcurvature of the cornea leading to blurred vision
asthenopia a tiredness of the eyes caused by prolonged close work by a person with an uncorrected vision problem
hyperopia farsightedness, a refractive error that does not allow the eye to focus on nearby objects
myopia nearsightedness, a refractive error that does not allow the eye to focus on distant objects
presbyopia progressive loss of elasticity of the lens resulting in hyperopia
corneal ulcer trauma to the outer covering of the eye resulting in an abrasion
keratitis inflammation of the cornea
aniscoria unequal pupils
hyphema blood in the anterior chamber of the eye
uveitis inflammation of the uvea
aphakia no lens
cataract progressive loss of transparency of the lens of the eye
glaucoma group of diseases of the eye characterized by increased intraocular pressure that results in damage to the optic nerve, producing defects in vision
achromatopsia color blindness
ARMD age related macular degeneration
diabetic retinopathy disease of retina in diabestics - capillary leakage, bleeding, and new vessel formation (neovascularization) leading to scarring and loss of vision
hemianopsia loss of half the visual field
nyctalopia inability to see well in dim light
retinal detachment separation of the retinal from the choroid layer
retinitis pigmentosa hereditary, progressive disease marked by night blindness with atrophy and retinal pigment changes
scotoma blind spot
nystagmus An involuntary, rhythmic oscillation of the eyeballs; may be lateral, vertical, or rotary
optic neuritis inflammation of the optic nerve resulting in blindness
choroidal hemangioma tumor of the blood vessel layer under the retina
intraocular melanoma malignant tumor of the choroid, ciliary body, or iris that usually occurs in individuals in their 50s or 60s
retinoblastoma A malignant tumor arising from the germ cell of the retina
amsler grid Visual field testing used to determine if any localized area of visual anomaly exists.
dipters strength of lens
fluorescein angiography a radiographic study of the blood vessels in the retina of the eye following the intravenous injection of a fluorescein dye as a contrast medium
fluorescein staining Applying dye eyedrops that are a bright green fluorescent color; used to look for corneal abrasions or ulcers.
gonioscopy examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye to determine ocular motility and rotation and diagnose and manage glaucoma
ophthalmic sonography using ultrasound to examine inside the eye, including taking measurements for lens insertion
ophthalmoscopy use of an ophthalmoscope to view the interior of the eye
schirmer tear test test to determine the amount of tear production
slit lamp examination microscope that magnifies the surface of the eye. used to identify corneal abrasions, conjunctivitis, and cataracts
tonometry process of measuring the intraocular pressure to diagnose glaucoma
VA visual acuity
VF test test area of physical space
blepharoplasty surgical repair of the eyelid
blepharorrhaphy suturing of the eyelid
dacryocystorhinostomy creation of an opening into the nose for drainage of tears
enucleation of the eye removal of the entire eyeball
evisceration of the eye removal of the contents of the eyeball, leaving the outer coat intact
exenteration of the eye removal of the entire contents of the orbit
ACS anteroir ciliary sclerotomy; incision to treat presbyopia
corneal incision procedure any keratotomy procedure in which the cornea is cut to change shape
AK astigmatic keratotomy
PRK photo-refractive keratectomy
corneal transplant the surgical replacement of a scarred or diseased cornea with clear corneal tissue from a donor
flap procedure any procedure in which a segment of the cornea is cut as a means of access to the structures below
LASIK Laser-Assisted in Situ Keratomileusis; used to treat vision conditions, such as myopia, that are caused by the shape of the cornea
catract extraction is a procedure performed to remove a cloudy lens from the eye
IOL intraocular lens
phacoemulsification and aspiration of cataract vision correction accomplished through the destruction and removal of the contents of the capsule by breaking it into small pieces and removing them by suction
coreoplasty plastic surgery of the pupil
goniotomy incision of Schlemm's canal to correct glaucoma by providing an exit for the queous humor
trabeculotomy external incision of the eye to promote intraocular circulation
retinal photocoagulation a procedure to repair tears in the retina by use of an intense, precisely focused light beam, which causes coagulation of the tissue protein
scleral buckling a procedure to repair a detached retina; a strip of sclera is resected, or a fold is made in the sclera
vitrectomy surgical removal of all or part of the vitreous humor (used to treat diabetic retinopathy)
cyclopegics dilates pupil and paralyzes ciliary muscle, cyclopentolate, dilates pupil and paralyzes ciliary muscle, cyclopentolate
miotics eye drops that cause the pupil of the eye to constrict
midriatics dilate the pupil
petrous (of bone especially the temporal bone) resembling stone in hardness
mastoid process process of the temporal bone behind the ear at the base of the skull
pinna the externally visible cartilaginous structure of the external ear
auricle the externally visible cartilaginous structure of the external ear
external auditory canal either of the passages in the outer ear from the auricle to the tympanic membrane
cerumen a soft yellow wax secreted by glands in the ear canal
external auditory meatus opening for the ear
tympanic membrane the membrane in the ear that vibrates to sound
ossicular chain the three interconnected bones in the middle ear that conduct vibration from the tympanic membrane to the cochlea.
incus the ossicle between the malleus and the stapes
stapes the stirrup-shaped ossicle that transmits sound from the incus to the cochlea
oval window fenestra that has the base of the stapes attached to it
eustachian tube either of the paired tubes connecting the middle ears to the nasopharynx
labyrinth inner ear
perilymph the bodily fluid that fills the space between the bony labyrinth and the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear
endolymph the bodily fluid that fills the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear
vestibule a large entrance or reception room or area
semicircular canals three canals within the inner ear that contain specialized receptor cells that generate nerve impulses with body movement
cochlea the snail-shaped tube (in the inner ear coiled around the modiolus) where sound vibrations are converted into nerve impulses by the Organ of Corti
utricle a small pouch into which the semicircular canals open
saccule a small sac or pouch (especially the smaller chamber of the membranous labyrinth)
macula a yellowish central area of the retina that is rich in cones and that mediates clear detailed vision
crista ampullaris A specialized receptor located within the semicircular canals that detects head movements
organ of Corti organ located in the cochlea; contains receptors (hair cells) that receive vibrations and generate nerve impulses for hearing
cerumen the wax-like substance secreted by glands in the external ear canal
otic of or relating to near the ear
aural of or related to the ear or the sense of hearing
tympanic associated with the eardrum
salpingeal of the eustachian tube
acoustic pertaining to hearing
otalgia pain in the ear
otorrhea discharge from the ear
tinnitus a ringing or booming sensation in one or both ears
vertigo a reeling sensation
macrotia abnormally large ears
microtia Abnormally small ears.
otitis externa inflammation of the external ear (including auricle and ear canal)
cholesteatoma cystlike mass composed of epithelial cells and cholesterol occurring in the middle ear; may be associated with chronic otitis media
infectious myringitis Contagious inflammation that causes painful blisters on the eardrum
mastoiditis inflammation of the mastoid process; most commonly seen as a result of the spread of inflammation and infection in otitis media
otitis media inflammation of the middle ear
otosclerosis hereditary disorder in which ossification of the labyrinth of the inner ear causes tinnitus and eventual deafness
labyrinthitis inflammation of the inner ear
Meniere disease disorder of the labyrinth that leads to progressive loss of hearing
ruptured tympanic membrane any type of tear or injury to the eardrum/possibly resulting from pressure, force, or insult from the exterior aspect
anacusis without hearing, total absence of hearing
paracusis partial loss or impaired hearing
presbycusis gradual loss of sensorineural hearing that occurs as the body ages
sensorineural hearing loss hearing loss due to failure of the auditory nerve
acoustic neuroma benign tumor on the auditory nerve (8th cranial nerve) that causes vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss
otoscopy visual examination of the ear, Visual examination of the external auditory canal and the tympanic membrane using an otoscope
pure tone audiometry Behavioural test to assess pure tone sensitivity (thresholds) of each ear in order to detect/describe peripheral HL. Compare air conduction and bone conduction, measurement of perception of pure tones with extrenous sound blocked out
rinne tuning fork test method of distinguishing conductive from sensorineural hearing loss
speech audiometry measurement of ability to hear and understand speech
tympanometry measurement (of movement) of the tympanic membrane
UNHS Universal Newborn Hearing Screening test
Weber tuning fork test Test done by placing the stem of a vibrating tuning fork on the midline of the head and having the patient indicate in which ear the tone can be heard.
cochlear implant a device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea
mastoidectomy surgical removal of some or all of the mastoid process
otoplasty reconstructive surgery of the auricle of the external ear
stapedectomy surgical removal of the stapes of the middle ear
tympanoplasty surgical repair of the eardrum
tympanostomy Incision into the eardrum, most often for insertion of a small metal or plastic tube, the keep the meatus open, avoiding fluid buildup as that which occurs as a result of otitis media
tympanotomy incision into the eardrum
ceruminolytics cerumenex, debrox (softens excess cerumen)
ABR Auditory Brainstem Response: Test needed for extremely young children to determine if they're profoundly deaf.
ASL american sign language
ENT Ear, Nose, Throat
AOE Acute otitis externa
Created by: DRIOS2