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MMT Ch 9

Medical Terminology Blood, Lymph & Immune Systems WGU

homeostasis metabolic equilibrium
hematology study of blood
immunology how our bodies fight off infection
hematic pertaining to blood
lymphatic returns fluid to cardiovascular system, detects, filters, and eliminates disease causing organisms.
hematopoiesis the formation of blood cells in the living body (especially in the bone marrow)
stem cell unspecialized cell that can develop into a specialized cell under the right conditions
plasma colorless watery fluid of blood and lymph containing no cells and in which erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets are suspended
erythrocytes red blood cells
leukocytes white blood cells, or WBC, form in the bone marrow and are part of the body's nonspecific defenses and the immune system
thrombocytes platelets, blood-clotting cell fragments
bone marrow a soft tissue inside the bone that produces blood cells
erythropoietin a glycoprotein secreted by the kidneys that stimulates the production of red blood cells
hemosiderin insoluble ferritin degradation product visible with Prussian blue stain
morphology the branch of biology that deals with the structure of animals and plants
granulocytes neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
polymorphonucleocytes neutrophil
eosinophils white blood cell that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in vertebrates, white blood cell that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in vertebrates
neutrophils A type of white blood cell that engulfs invading microbes and contributes to the nonspecific defenses of the body against disease.
phagocytes cells that ingest antigens
basophils Blood cells that enter damaged tissues and enhance the inflammation process and contain histamine and heparin
anticoagulant a drug that prevents clotting of the blood
agranulocytes a group of leukocytes without granules in their nuclei
monocytes an agranular leukocyte that is able to migrate into tissues and transform into a macrophage
macrophages Found within the lymph nodes, they are phagocytes that destroy bacteria, cancer cells, and other foreign matter in the lymphatic stream.
lymphocytes Make antibodies to destroy foreign pathogens
antigens foreign substances that trigger the attack of antibodies in the immune response.
antibodies Protein that is produced by lymphocytes and that attaches to a specific antigen.
coagulation blood clotting
agglutinate clump together
prothrombin a protein in blood plasma that is the inactive precursor of thrombin
thrombin an enzyme that acts on fibrinogen in blood causing it to clot
fibrinogen Plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process
fibrin Protein threads that form the basis of a blood clot
hemostasis stoppage of bleeding
serum watery fluid of the blood that resembles plasma but contains fibrinogen
antigens foreign substances that trigger the attack of antibodies in the immune response.
antibodies Specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents
agglutinogens Antigens formed on the surface of red blood cells, whose presence and structure are genetically determined.
universal recipient blood group AB; no natural blood group antibodies in serum
Rh factor the presence, or lack, of antigens on the surface of red blood cells that may cause a reaction between the blood of the mother and fetus, resulting in fetal anemia
HDN hemolytic disease of the newborn
lymph the clear fluid that bathes each cell and transfers needed substances and wastes back and forth between the blood and the cells
lymph vessels vessels that receive lymph from the lymph capillaries and circulate it to the lymph nodes
lymph nodes Bean-shaped filters that cluster along the lymphatic vessels of the body. They function as a cleanser of lymph as wells as a site of T and B cell activation
macrophages Found within the lymph nodes, they are phagocytes that destroy bacteria, cancer cells, and other foreign matter in the lymphatic stream.
lymph glands Another name for lymph nodes; small organs composed of lymphatic tissue located along the route of the lymphatic vessels; remove impurities from the lymph and manufacture lymphocytes and antibodies.
thoracic duct receives lymph from the left side of the head, neck, chest, abdomen, left arm, and lower extremities
spleen Produces blood cells, destroys damaged blood cells, stores blood cells
thymus gland An endocrine gland located in the upper mediastinum that assists the body with the immune function and the development of antibodies. As part of the immune response it secretes a hormone, thymosin, that changes lymphocytes to T cells.
tonsils oval lymphatic tissues on each side of the pharynx that filter air to protect the body from bacterial invasion; also called palatine
appendix a vestigial process that extends from the lower end of the cecum and that resembles a small pouch
cytokines chemicals released by the immune system that attack infections and communicate with the brain to elicit anti-illness behaviors
lymphokines which are produced by the T cells, direct the antigen-antibody response by signaling between the cells of the immune system
monokines cytokines primarily produced by monocytes and macrophages
interleukins proteins that stimulate the growth of B or T lymphocytes and activate specific components of the immune response
non specific immunity defenses that stop the invasion of pathogens; requires no previous encounter with a pathogen
specific immunity the third line of defense. the body's way of fighting off specific things that invade your body
acquired immunity Formation of antibodies and lymphocytes after exposure to an antigen
natural immunity immunity to disease that occurs as part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
phagocytosis process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell
pyrexia fever
inflammation a response of body tissues to injury or irritation
interferons Antiviral proteins secreted by T cells
natural killer cells A type of white blood cell that can kill tumor cells and virus-infected cells; an important component of innate immunity.
immunoglobulins Bind with specific antigens in the antigen-antibody response
humoral immunity specific immunity produced by B cells that produce antibodies that circulate in body fluids
cell-mediated immunity immunity against abnormal cells and pathogens inside living cells
active immunity a form of acquired immunity in which the body produces its own antibodies against disease-causing antigens
passive immunity short-term immunity caused when antibodies produced by other animals for a pathogen are injected into the body
dyscrasia an abnormal or physiologically unbalanced state of the body
anemia a deficiency of red blood cells
acute posthemorrhagic anemia RBC deficiency caused by blood loss
B12 Deficiency -Pernicious anemia: macrocytic anemia, muscle weakness, neurological distrurbances
-neither B12 or Folate will clear up macrocytic but if B12 deficient this can be potentially very dangerous
-vegans takes long time
chronic blood loss depletes iron stores, leading to decreased erthropoiesis
folate deficiency MCC of increased serum homocysteine
hypovolemia a blood disorder consisting of a decrease in the volume of circulating blood
sideropenia deficiency of iron
pernicious anemia lack of mature erythrocytes caused by inability to absorb vitamin B12 into the body
aplastic anemia a condition where bone marrow does not produce sufficient new cells to replenish blood cells.
hemolytic anemia anemia resulting from destruction of erythrocytes
autoimmune acquired hemolytic anemia anemia caused by the body's destruction of its own RBCs by serum antibodies
nonautoimmune acquired hemolytic anemia anemia that may be drug induced or caused by an infectious disease
sickle cell anemia a genetic disorder that causes abnormal hemoglobin, resulting in some red blood cells assuming an abnormal sickle shape
thalassemias Genetic defect results in reduced rate of synthesis of one of the globin chains as well as increased RBC destruction
(hemolysis) resulting in decreased survival rate.
pancytopenia an abnormally reduced number of all cellular components in the blood
hemophilia is a bleeding disorder that slows the blood clotting process
polycythemia vera chronic increase in the number of RBC's and the concentration of hemoglobin.
purpura any of several blood diseases causing subcutaneous bleeding
thrombocytopenia a blood disease characterized by an abnormally small number of platelets in the blood
leukosytosis abnormal increase of white blood cells
leukopenia an abnormal lowering of the white blood cell count
neutropenia leukopenia in which the decrease is primarily in number of neutrophils (the chief phagocytic leukocyte)
edema swelling from excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue
hypersplenism splenomegaly; peripheral blood cytopenias; portal hypertension MCC
lymphadenitis Infection of the lymph nodes
lymphadenopathy chronic abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes (usually associated with disease)
lymphedema swelling (usually in the legs) caused by lymph accumulating in the tissues
lymphocytopenia an abnormally small number of lymphocytes in the circulating blood
lymphocytosis an abnormal increase in the number of lymphocytes in the circulating blood
mononucleosis a condition caused by the Epstein-Barr virus characterized by an increase in mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphocytes) in the blood, along with enlarged lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), fatigue, and sore throat (pharyngitis)
AIDS a serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles
allergy overly strong reaction of the immune system to a foreign substance
anaphylaxis a severe response to an allergen in which the symptoms develop quickly, and without help, the patient can die within a few minutes.
delayed allergy an allergic reaction that becomes apparent only hours after contact
immediate allergy an allergic reaction that becomes apparent in a sensitized person only minutes after contact
autoimmune disease any of a large group of diseases characterized by abnormal functioning of the immune system that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against your own tissues
thymoma tumor of the thymus gland
ALL acute lymphocytic leukemia characterized by proliferation of immature lymphoblast-like cells in bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, and blood
AML acute myelogenous leukemia
CLL chronic lymphocytic leukemia
CML chronic myelogenous leukemia
Hodgkin lymphoma distinguished from other lymphomas by the presence of large, cancerous lymphocytes known as Reed-Sternberg cells
multiple myeloma myeloma that develops in several places at the same time
non-Hodgkin lymphoma the term used to describe all lymphomas other than Hodgkin's lymphoma
malignant thymoma rare cancer of the thymus gland
lymphadenography radiographic examination of lymph nodes after injection of a contrast medium
lymphangiography roentgenographic examination of lymph nodes and lymph vessels after injection of a radiopaque contrast medium
splenic arteriography radiographic visualization of the spleen with the use of a contrast medium
ELISA enzyme linked immunosorbent assay
Western Blot blood test used to check for antibodies for HIV and to confirm an ELISA test
BMP basic metabolic panel
CBC counting the number of white and red blood cells and the number of platelets in 1 cubic millimeter of blood
CMP complete metabolic panel
Coombs antiglobulin test blood test to diagnose hemolytic disease of the newborn acquired hemolytic anemia or a transfusion reaction
diff count measure of the numbers of the different types of WBCs
ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Hct hematocrit
PCV Packed cell volume (hematocrit)
Hgb hemoglobin
Hb hemoglobin
MCH mean corpuscular hemoglobin
MCHC mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration
Monospot test for infectious mononucleosis
PTT partial thromboplastin time
PT prothrombin time
Schilling Test determine whether the problem with low blood B12 is related to intrinsic factor insufficiency by administering tracer-labeled vit B12 and measure urinary excretion overy various times
WBC white blood cell
apheresis a procedure in which blood is drawn and separated into its components by dialysis
BMT basic metabolic panel
autologous originating within an individual
adenoidectomy excision of the adenoids
lymphadenectomy removal of a lymph node
splenectomy surgical removal of the spleen
Created by: DRIOS2