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Mixture of Anatomy

QuestionAnswer
study of body structure anatomy
study of body functions physiology
organism cell or organelles, the ability to move substances movement
the ability to detect and respond to stimuli internal and external responsiveness
size of number of cells growth
new cells or new organism reproduction
releasing energy from foods respiration
breakdown of macromolecules digestion
moving material through membranes into body absorption
changing absorbed material into other compounds assimilation
moving substance throughout body circulation
removing metabolic wastes excretion
all the chemical reactions in the body metabolism
levels of structural organization from smallest particle of matter to most complex cell, tissues, organ, organ system.
maintaining a stable internal environment homeostasis
vertebral canal spinal cord
thoracic shoulder to diaphragm
pleural lungs
pericardial heart
mediastinum in between to lungs
toward the head superior
away from the head inferior
toward the front of the body anterior
toward the back of the body posterior
toward the midline medial
away from the midline lateral
toward the point of attachment proximal
away from the point of attachment distal
toward the surface of the body superficial
away from the surface deep
maintaining a stable internal environment homeostasis
the chemical reactions in the body metabolism
list one body homeostatic mechanisms temperature, blood sugar, blood pressure
an internal change causes a response that reverses the ordinal stimulus negative feedback
rare. a response enhances the original stimulus positive feedback
vertebral canall spinal cord
adominal diaphragm to pelvic
framework, protection...sym skeletal sym
contraction...sym muscular sym
sense internal and external changes, and sends messages...sym nervous sym
secretes hormones...sym endocrine sym
carries materials to cells...sym cardiovascular sym
carries fluids back to blood and provides protection...sym lymphatic sym
breaks down and absorbs nutrients...sym digestive sym
oxygen into blood and carbon dioxide out...sym respiratory sym
removes wastes and excess h2o...sym urinary sym
lengthwise plane- left and right sides sagittal
crosswire plane- top and bottom halves transverse
lengthwise plane front and back halves frontal/coronal
similar cells specialized to carry out one function tissues
study of tissues histology
four types of tissues in the human body epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
function of epithelial tissue covers organs, produces glands, lines cavities
shape of squamous thin flattened
shape of cuboidal cube shaped
shape of columnar tall, elongated
shape of transitional changes shape when stretched
single layer of flat cells, absorption simple squamous
single layer of cube cells, absorption and secretion simple cuboidal
single layer of tall cells, protection, secretion, and absorption simple columnar
appear layered but are not usually ciliated with goblet cells pesudostratified columnar
many layered flat cells stratified squamous
two to three layers of cube cells stratified cuboidal
several layers of tall cells stratified columnar
secrete onto surfaces or cavities and an example...gland exocrine glands, ex: salivary, sweat
secrete into the blood and an example...gland endocrine glands, ex: thyroid
functions of connective tissues bind structures, support protection
fixed cells that produce matrix fibers fibroblasts
wandering cells that clear dead and foreign particles macrophages
near blood vessels to prevents clotting and participate in allergic response mast cells
thick protein fiber bundles, very strong and example...fiber collagenous, ex: ligaments
thin protein fibers that stretch and recoil and example...fiber elastic, ex: skin, vocal cords
thin collagen fibers, branched and example...fiber reticular, ex: spleen
thin membranes fibroblasts far apart, ecm a gel with many collagen and elastin fibers, found deep to most epithelial layers...connt tissue loose or areolar
fat storage cells, subcutaneous between muscles around heart and kidneys. cushions, insulates cells...connt tissue adipose
few cells, ecm of closely packed collegan and elastic fibers found in tendons, ligaments...conn tissue dense
ridige ecm provides, support, framework, cushioning at joints...conn tissue cartilage
cartilage cells reside in lacunae...connt tissue chondrocytes
ridige ecm. collagen surrounds cells, supports, protects, mineral storage...connt tissue bone
bone cells. central canal provides transport into bones, canaliculi are tunnels between cells...connt tissue ostepcytes
fluids ecm, plasma transports material...connt tissue blood
muscles tissues functions contract to provide movement
voluntatry, attaches to bone, striated, multinucleated elongated cells...mus tissue skeletal
involuntary no striations, spindle shaped, mononucleated found in various organs, blood vessels...mus tissue smooth
involuntary striated branched, momoncleated...mus tissue cardiac
nervous tissues functions sense changes, transmits impulses
produced and needed by the body secreation
waste leaving the body excertion
Created by: katercheers