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Superficial Back

Anatomy - Superficial Back and Scapular Area

QuestionAnswer
What 4 Joints connect the clavicle to the Sternum, Scapula, and Humerus? Sternoclavicular, Acromioclavicular, Scapulothoracic, Gelenohumeral joints.
The Sternal End of the Clavicle articulates with what structure? What Joint connects these two structures? Articulates with the Manubrium of the Sternum via the Sternoclavicular joint.
The Acromial End of the Clavicle articulates with what structure? What Joint connects these two structures? Articulates with the Acromion of the Scapula via the Acromioclavicular joint.
What two muscles pull the Clavicle superiorly? The Trapezius, and the Sternocleidomastoid (SCM).
What 4 LIGAMENTS hold together the Sternoclavicular joint? Interclavicular Ligament, Anterior Sternoclavicular Ligament, Posterior Sternoclavicular Ligament, and the Costoclavicular Ligament.
What directions can the Sternoclavicular Joint move? Superoinferiorly (S-I) or Anteroposteriorly (A-P)
True or False: The Sternoclavicular Joint is the most commonly dislocated joint. False. It is an extremely strong joint that is rarely dislocated.
In the case of a clavicular fracture, what 3 muscles change function? Sternocleidomastoid (SCM), Trapezius, and Pectoralis Major
In the case of a clavicular fraction, how will the Sternocleidomastoid react? It will elevate the medial fragment of the clavicle (the lateral fragment is not connected to it anymore)
In the case of a clavicular fracture, how will the Trapezius react? The weight of the shoulder is too much on the Trapezius alone so the shoulder drops.
In the case of a clavicular fracture, how will the Pectoralis Major react? It will pull the humerus medially.
Does the Scapula overlie the Thorax Anterolaterlaly or Posterolaterally? Posterolaterally (over ribs 2-7)
Observing the Scapula POSTERIORLY, what two fossa are separated by the spine of the scaplua? Supraspinous Fossa and Infraspinous Fossa
What is the fossa present on the ANTERIOR surface of the scapula? Subscapular Fossa
What is the function of the fossa on the scapula? They are attachment sites for 3 of the 4 rotator cuff muscles. Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, and Subscapularis (Not Teres Minor)
What part of the Scapula continues with the Acromion and articulates with the Clavicle to form the Acriomioclavicular Joint? The Spine of the Scapula.
What are the two Scapular Notches? The Suprascapular Notch and the Spinoglenoid Notch (AKA The Greater Scapular Notch)
In anatomical terms, where on the Scapula is the Suprascapular notch? On the superior border, medial to the coracoid process.
What Ligament bridges the Suprascapular Notch to form a foramen? Superior Transverse Scapular Ligament
What nerve passes through the Suprascapular Notch? The Suprascapular Nerve.
In anatomical terms, where on the Scapula is the Spinoglenoid Notch (Greater Scapular Notch)? On the Free Lateral Edge of the Spine.
A certain nerve and artery pass through the Spinoglenoid (Greater Scapular) Notch. What are they? The Suprascapular Nerve and the Suprascapular Artery.
True or False: The Suprascapular Nerve only passes through the Spinoglenoid Notch but not the Suprascapular Notch. False. The Suprascapular Nerve Passes through both the Suprascapular Notch and the Spinoglenoid (Greater Scapular) Notch.
True or False: The Suprascapular Artery passes through both the Suprascapular Notch and the Spinoglenoid Notch. False. The Suprascapular Artery only passes through the Spinoglenoid (Greater Scapular) Not, but not theough the Suprascapular Notch.
The Suprascapular Nerve passes through both the Suprascapular Notch and the Spinoglenoid Notch and proceeds to what muscle? Infraspinatous
In Anatomical terms, where on the Scapula is the Glenoid Cavity? On the Lateral Angle of the Scapula.
What structure does the Glenoid Cavity articulate with? The Humerus.
The articulation of the Glenoid Cavity to the Humerus forms what joint? The Glenohumeral Joint.
What Tubercles are above and below the Glenoid Cavity? The Supraglenoid and Infraglenoid Tubercles, respectively.
The Acromioclavicular Joint connects what two structures? The Acromion of the Scapula to the Clavicle (known as the Acromial end of Clavicle)
What 2 Ligaments hold together the AcomioClavicular (AC) Joint? Acromioclavicular Ligament and the Coracoclavicular Ligament.
True or False: The Acromioclavicular Ligament is weaker than the Coracoclavicular Ligament. True. The coracoclavicular ligament is stronger since it is made up of 2 smaller ligaments.
What two ligaments make up the Coracoclavicular Ligament? Trapezius Ligament and the Conoid Ligament.
What directions can the AC Joint Move? A-P and S-I
True or false: The AC Joint is the most common site of Shoulder SEPARATION. True.
True or false: Shoulder SEPARATION (not dislocation) is caused by AC Joint dislocation. True.
What happens to the clavicle and acromion after AC Joint separation? Weight from the arm displaces clavicle from acromion (this is the shoulder separation).
The dysfunction of what muscles would cause an inability to ELEVATE the scapula? Levator Scapulae, Superior Trapezius, and the Rhomboids
The dysfunction of what muscles would cause an inability to DEPRESS the scapula? Pectoralis Minor, Inferior Trapezius, and Serratus Anterior Inferior
The dysfunction of what muscles would cause an inability to PROTRACT the scapula? Pectoralis Minor and Serratus Anterior
The dysfunction of what muscles would cause an inability to RETRACT the scapula? Rhomboids, Middle Trapezius, and Latissimus Dorsi.
How does Latissimus Dorsi help retract the scapula if it is not even attached to the scapula? By pulling medially on the Humerus.
What muslces are involved in a rotation of the arm that ELEVATES the Glenoid Cavity? (Abduction of arm) Superior Trapezius, Inferior Trapezius, and Serratus Anterior Inferior.
What muslces are involved in a rotation of the arm that DEPRESSES the Glenoid Cavity? (Adduction of arm) Rhomboids, Pectoralis Minor, Levator Scapulae, and Latissimus Dori.
What group of muscles are known as the Extrinsic Back Muscles? The superficial and intermediate back muscles.
Where do Extrinsic Back Muscles (except for the trapezius) receive their innervation from? Anterior Rami of Spinal Nerves.
Where does the Trapezius receive its innervation from? Cranial Accessory Nerve XI
The Latissimus dorsi connects what to what? The thoracolumbar fascia to the Intertubercular Groove of the humerus.
The Latissimus dorsi is innervated by what nerves? Thoracodorsal Nerves C6-C8.
How would damage to Thoracodorsal Nerves C6-C8 present clinically? Inability to extend, abduct, or medially rotate the humerus. Example: Can't raise body while climbing.
The Levator Scapulae connects vertebrae C1-C4 to what part of the scapula? Medial border of the scapula, superior to the spine.
The Levator Scapulae is innervated by what nerves? Dorsal Scapular Nerve C5 and Spinal Nerves C3-C4.
How would damage to the Dorsal Scapular Nerve, C5, Or Spinal Nerves C3-C4 present clinically? Scapula would depress, rotate medially, and the Glenoid Cavity would tilt superiorly.
The Rhomboid Minor connects what to what? Spinous processes C7-T1 to the triangular area at the medial end of the Scapula.
The Rhomboid Major connects what to what Spinous processes T2-T5 to the medial border of the Scapula between the Spine and Inferior Angle.
Both Rhomboids are innervated by what nerve? Dorsal Scapular Nerve, C5
How would damage to Dorsal Scapular Nerve C5 present clinically? Scapula would protract laterally and would rotate medially, elevating the Glenoid Cavity.
True or False: The Serratus Posterior (superior and inferior) muscles are superficial back muscles. False. They are intermediate back muscles.
Serratus posterior muscles are innervated by what nerves? Anterior Rami or Spinal Nerves
Serratus Posterior Superior connects what to what? Spinous processes to Ribs 2-5
Serratus Posterior Inferior connects what to what? Spinous processes to Ribs 9-12
How does the Serratus Posterior Superior (SPS) act on the ribs? SPS elevates the upper ribs
How does Serratus Posterior Inferior (SPI) act on the ribs? SPI depresses the lower ribs.
By elevating and depressing the upper and lower ribs, SPS and SPI ultimately help the function of what other process? Respiration.
Dorsal Scapular Nerve, C5, innervates what 3 muscles? Levator Scapulae, Rhomboid Major and Rhomboid Minor
Created by: pa0246ph