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final exam study guide for A&P Bios 251

What is the axial Skeleton consisting of Skull/Associated bones, Thoracic Cage, vertebral column. Includes ear bones.
What does the Axial Skeleton form Longitudinal axis of body
Axial Skeleton forms a framework to support and protect organ systems in what Dorsal and ventral body cavities (also called Thorax). Within this cavity are the pleural cavity and peridcardial cavities.
What bones are unpaired in the cranium Occipital, frontal, sphenoid and ethmoid
What bones are paired in the cranium Parietal & temporal bones
What are the air filled chambers that are part of the nasal cavity Paranasal sinuses
What structures of the cranium is open allowing for growth at birth and close as the baby ages Fontanels. Largest is anterior fontanel in front, occipital fontanel in back, and mastoid fontanel on side
How many vertebras do we have 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar
What is order of vertebras Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral coccyx
What are the top two (c1/c2) vertebras called (in order) Atlas, axis (no vertebral discs)
What is largest hole in skull Foramen magnum
What bones make up the sternum Manubrium, body, xiphoid process (in order).
The clavicle articulates with what bone of the sternum Manubrium
What is Appendicular skeleton all other bones excluding axial 
What is the pectoral girdle Clavicle/scapula
What are the parallel bones that support the forearm Ulna/radius
What are the bones of the pelvic girdle illium, pubis, & ischium
True or false- the clavicle is the only direct connection between pectoral girdle and the axial skeleton True
What is the acromion Bony process at flat end of clavicle above humerus
What is glenoid cavity or glenoid fossa Where the scapula articulates with the proximal end of humerus
What is the amphiarthrotic articulation which limits movements between the two pubic bones Symphysis pubis
What two areas of the skeleton are used to generally identify significant differences between male & female Pelvis & skull.
What is difference between male & female pelvis Woman greater than 180 degree angle, lower illium “wings”, coccyx bent out a bit for female
What are the bones of the ankle/foot called Tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
What are the bones of hand/wrist called Carpals, metacarpals, phalanges
How many phalanges in each hand and foot 14 each. Each finger and toes have 3 while big thumb and big toe have 2
What is name of bone we sit on Ischium
What is the name of the most lateral bone in forearm (anatomical position) Radius
What is the name of the medial bone in forearm (anatomical position) Ulna
What is the name of the most lateral bone in leg (anatomical position) Tibia
What is the name of the medial bone in leg(anatomical position) Fibula
Is the femur part of the leg NO! this is the thigh
What bones consist of leg bones Tibia & fibula
What are the os coxae 3 separate bones that make up hip. This is the paired hipbones that make up pelvic girdle
What 3 bones are fused to make os coxae Illium, ischium, and pubis
What is articular cartilage Glassy smooth hyaline cartilage that covers opposing bones surfaces but provides spongy cushions to absorb compression placed on joint and keep bone from being crushed
What are ligaments Helps prevent dislocation; Unite bones and prevent excessive or undesirable mvmt. The Synovial joints are reinforced and strengthened by ligaments. They are thickened parts of fibrous capsule found outside the capsule
What are muscle tendons Resists tension placed on joints. tendons are kept taut by muscle tone. The tendon is built to withstand tension. These are similar to, but not to be confused with ligaments, which connect or join one bone to another
What is articular capsule Strengthens joint so bones are not pulled apart.
What is Synovial fluid Lubricates and keeps joints from overheating
What is a nonaxial range of movement (synovial joints) slipping movements only
What is a Uniaxial range of movement (synovial joints) movement in one plane
What is a Biaxial range of movement (synovial joints) movement in two planes
What is a multiaxial range of movement (synovial joints) Movement in or around all three planes
What is Flexion Bending movement that decreases the angle of the joint
What is Extension Reverse of flexion; joint angle is increased
What is Dorsiflexion Lifting foot upwards
What is plantar flexion Down movement of the foot (“plant the foot”)
What is Abduction movement away from the midline (think abduct-take away)
What is Adduction movement toward the midline (think add to body)
What is Circumduction movement describes a cone in space
What is Rotation The turning of a bone around its own long axis. Examples :Between first two vertebrae and Hip and shoulder joints
What is Depression moving body part inferiorly (opening downward of mandible)
What is Elevation Moving body part superiorly (shrugging shoulders moves scapula; during eating your mandible is elevated when your mouth is closed
What is Eversion Sole faces laterally; Special movements of foot
What is Inversion Sole of foot turns medially; Special movements of foot
What is gliding (translation) simplest joint movements flat or nearly flat bone surfaces glides or slips over one another (back and forth & side to side) w/out angulation or rotation (think intercarpal/intertarsal joints and between flat articular processes of vertebrae.
What is supination Rotating forearm laterally so palm faces superiorly (upwards) (“soup in hand”)
What is Pronation Forearm rotates medially so palm faces inferiorly (downwards) (palms down)
What is protraction and retraction Non angular anterior and posterior movements in transverse plane (jut jaw = protraction; retraction when move jaw back into original position)
What are plane joints Sliding movements Non-axial including sacroiliac, intercarpal joints, femoropatellar joint of the knee & proximal tibiofubular joint of knee. Articular surfaces are flat, short gliding or translational movments
What are condyloid joints Bone fits into depression on another bone. Biaxial joints allows all angular movements such as flexion, extension, abduction and adduction and circumduction. Types are radiocarpal (wrist) and metacarpophalangeal (knuckle)
What is hinge joint Cylindrical projection fits into a trough shaped surface of another. Uniaxial. Elbow , knee and interphalangeal joints
What is pivot joint Uniaxial; rounded end of one bone protrudes into sleeve of another bone. Only movement is uniaxial rotation. Example is atlas/axis (c1/c2)
What is a saddle joint Resemble condyloid but greater movement. Shaped like a saddle. Carpometacarpal joints of thumbs. (lets twiddle our thumbs)
What is a ball & socket joint Multiaxial. Spherical head of one bone articulates with a cuplike socket of another. Examples are shoulder and hips
Knuckles Condyloid
Sacroilliac joint Plane
Intercarpal Joints Plane
Femoropatellar joint of the knee Plane
Hip & shoulder joints Ball & socket
Radiocarpal Condyloid (wrist)
Proximal tibiofibular joint Plane
Carpometacarpal joint of thumb Saddle
Elbow , knee and interphalangeal joints Hinge
Joint between c1/c2 (atlas/axis) Pivot
Uniaxial joints pivot, hinge
Biaxial joints Condyloid, (maybe saddle)
Multiaxial joints Ball & socket
Nonaxial joints Plane
What is synchondrosis Immovable joints made of a bar or plate of hyaline cartilage such as epiphyseal plates and joint between coastal cartilage of first rib and Manubrium of sternum.
Created by: rivabard



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