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MCAT - Metabolism

Kaplan MCAT Biology Chapter 3

Cellular metabolism sum of all chemical reactions that occur in cell
Chem rxns in cell are either ________ or ___________ anabolic; catabolic
anabolic reactions energy requiring - require synthesis of compounds
catabolic reactions release energy - break down compounds
Autotrophic organisms obtain energy anabolically by converting sunlight into bond energy (photosynthesis)
Bond energy in autotrophic organisms stored in organic compounds (mostly glucose)
Heterotrophic organisms obtain energy catabolically by ingestion of compounds to be broken down
Net rxn of photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy = C6H12O6 + 6O2
Rxn of glucose catabolism reverse of photosynthesis
Energy carriers ATP, NAD+, NADP (only in plants), FAD
Formation of and degrading of ATP = energy stored and released
ATP i synthesized during glucose catabolism
Components of ATP adenine, ribose, 3 phosphate groups
Energy of ATP is stored in covalent bonds of phosphate groups
Amount of energy released per mole of ATP 7 kcal
ATP provides energy for what? endergonic reactions - examples: muscle contraction, motility, active transport of substances across plasma membrane
NAD+, NADP, FAD are classified as __________ coenzymes that are electron carriers
Where do the electrons come from that are carried by electron carriers in glucose catabolism? H atoms removed during glucose oxidation
Where is the electron transport chain? inner mitochondrial membrane
Oxidation loss of an electron (H)
NAD+, NADP+, FAD are (oxidizing/reducing) agents oxidizing
NAD+, NADP+, and FAD are (oxidized/reduced) when they become NADH, NADPH, FADH2 reduced
NADH, NADPH, FADH2 are (oxidizing/reducing) agents reducing agents
2 steps of glucose catabolism glycolysis, cellular respiration
Glycolysis product 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP (net), reduction of NAD+ to NADH
Where does glycolysis occur? cytoplasm
Substrate-level phosphorylation ATP synthesis that is direct from degradation of glucose without the participation of an intermediate molecule such as NAD+
Does glycolysis occur in prokaryotic cells? yes
Where is the energy of glucose after glycolysis? pyruvate molecules (count 2)
Pyruvate degradation can occur in what 2 ways? Fermentation, cellular respiration
During fermentation, pyruvate is (oxidized/reduced) reduced
During aerobic cellular respiration, pyruvate is (oxidized/reduced) oxidized
Fermentation is collectively what processes? Glycolysis and formation of lactic acid
2 types of fermentation alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation
in what does does alcohol fermentation typically occur yeast and some bacteria
In what does lactic acid fermentation typically occur? fungi, bacteria, and human muscles during strenuous activity
During alcohol fermentation, pyruvate is ___________ to ____________ decarboxylated; acetaldehyde
In muscles, lactic acid accumulation causes a decrease in _______ that leads to muscle fatigue blood pH
Oxygen debt the oxygen required to oxidize lactic acid back to pyruvate so that it can re-enter cellular respiration
How many ATP does aerobic cellular respiration yield 36 in eukaryotes; 38 in prokaryotes
Why is cellular respiration more efficient with oxygen b/c oxygen acts as the final electron acceptor and without it, electrons back up and NAD+ is not regenerated
Where does aerobic cellular respiration occur in eukaryotes? mitochodria
3 stages of aerobic cellular respiration pyruvate decarboxylation, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain
Process of pyruvate decarboxylated pyruvate transported to mitochondrial matrix and is decarboxylated (loses CO2) leaving an acetyl group; acetyl group is transferred to CoA to form acetyl CoA; NAD+ is reduced to NADH
Citric Acid Cycle aka Krebs cycle and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle)
Basics of citric acid cycle acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetate to form citrate; 2 CO2 released and oxaloacetate regenerated; electrons transferred to NAD+ and FAD; each turn of cycle produces 1 ATP vi a GTP intermediate
Where is the electron transport chain? inner mitochondrial membrane
What are most of the molecules of the electron transport chain? cytochromes
1st molecule of ETC FMN(flavin mononucleotide)
Last molecule of ETC cytochrome a3
Hindrances of the ETC cyanide - blocks transfer of electrons from cytochrome a3 to oxygen and dinitrophenol - uncouples ETC from the proton gradient
3 categories of protein complexes in ETC NADH dehydrogenase, b-c1 complex, cytochrome oxidase
When does the energy loss occur in the ETC? as electrons are transferred from one complex to the next - released 1 ATP per complex
Where does NADH deliver H? dehydrogenase complex, thus producing 3 ATP
Where does FADH2 deliver H? between dehydrogenase complex and b-c1 complex to carrier Q, thus producing only 2 ATP
What is the coupling agent of oxidation of NADH to phosphorylation of ADP? proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane
What maintains the proton gradient? as NADH passes electron, free H+ is released and accumulates in mitochondrial matrix creating a positive acidic environment which generates a roton-motive force driving H+ back through channels provided by enzyme complexes called ATP synthetases
How many ATP are produced in substrate-level phosphorylation? 4
How many ATP are produced by oxidative phosphorylation? 32 in eukaryotes; 34 in prokaryotes
What are other energy sources available when glucose runs low? In order of body preference: other carbohydrates, fats, proteins
Where are fats stored and what are they stored as? in adipose tissue as triglyceride
How are fats prepped for use as energy? hydrolyzed by lipases to fatty acids and glycerol, then carried by blodd to other tissues for oxidation
How are proteins prepped for use as energy? amino acids undergo transamination to form alpha-keto acid; carbons of amino acid converted into acetyl CoA, pyruvate or another intermediate
Created by: susanivey
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