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ap marieb ch23 rvw

Anat and phys Marieb chap 23 review - Digestive

Mrs. Wong emergency room with the symptoms: severe pain in the umbilical region, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting. While she was waiting to see a doctor, the pain moved to the lower right abdominal quadrant. What is the diagnosis and treatment? The diagnosis is appendicitis. The treatment is immediate surgical removal of the appendix.
The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called ________. digestion
Which of the following is an essential role played by large intestine bacteria? synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins
The pharyngeal-esophageal phase of swallowing is involuntary and is controlled by the swallowing center in the thalamus and lower pons. T/F false
Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of ________. catabolism
The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________. mesenteries
The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________. lamina propria
The layer of the digestive tube that contains blood vessels, lymphatic nodules, and a rich supply of elastic fibers is the ________. submucosa
Which of the following are types of papillae on the tongue that contain taste buds? filliform fungiform circumvallate
The pancreas has both an endocrine and an exocrine function. T/F True
The major stimulus for production of intestinal fluid is distention or irritation of the intestinal mucosa by hypertonic or acidic chyme. T/F True
Chyme is created in the _____ stomach
Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones or paracrines that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which of the following cell types synthesize and secrete these products? enteroendocrine
Gastrin is a digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the stomach. These secretions are stimulated by the presence of ________. protein and peptide fragments
________ is (are) not important as a stimulus in the gastric phase of gastric secretion. carbohydrates
Hormones or paracrines that inhibit gastric secretion include ________. secretin
All the chemical and mechanical phases of digestion from the mouth through the small intestine are directed toward changing food into forms that can pass through the epithelial cells lining the mucosa into the underlying blood and lymphatic vessels. T/F True
A 45-year-old patient was admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of cirrhosis of the liver. He is thin and malnourished, but his abdomen is very large, and his lower extremities are very swollen. Why did these physical changes occur? Cirrhosis is characterized by extensive degeneration and destruction of the liver parenchymal cells, replaced with scar tissue. When the scar tissue shrinks, portal hypertension results and edema and ascites in the abdomen are the clinical manifestations.
Which organ has a main function to filter and process the nutrient rich blood delivered to it liver
Which organ contains brush border enzymes that complete the digestion of carbs and proteins small and large intestines
Which vitamins are made by the bacteria in the large intestine? B complex and K vitamins
Which organ produces intrinsic factor stomach
Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile? cholecystokinin (CCK)
Hepatocytes do not ________. produce digestive enzymes
Pancreatic amylase does not get to the small intestine via the ________. cystic duct
Dentin anchors the tooth in place T/F False
Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins? trypsin
________ is the principal enzyme for breaking down carbohydrates. amylase
Richard is told by his family doctor that he is bleeding from either the colon or the rectum, and he should see a specialist as soon as possible. Which specialist should he go see? proctologist
______ and ______ are absorbed mostly by the duodenum. iron, calcium
Saliva contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins T/F False
Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves ________. cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction
After a meal high in fat ______ would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the _____ bile, duodenum
Peyer’s patches destroy _____ bacteria
_______ is considered to be an accessory organ of the digestive system? Gallbladder
Which digestive process normally occurs only in the mouth? Ingestion
The _______ is the serous membrane that lines the body wall. parietal peritoneum
The innermost tissue layer of the alimentary canal is the __________. mucosa
Which histological layer of the digestive tract is composed primarily of epithelial tissue? mucosa
The_________ is the last segment of the small intestine. ileum
What role of the stomach is essential to life? production of intrinsic factor
Most digestion and absorption of nutrients occurs in the: small intestine
______ can result if food passes too slowly through the large intestine. constipation
Amalyse is for ______ digestion carbohydrate
Protease is for ____ digestion lipid digestion
Nuclease is for _____ digestion dna and rna digestion
Lipase is for ____ digestion fat digestion
What is the major function of the pancreas? production of digestive enzymes
Blood drained from the stomach is more alkaline (basic) than blood that serves the stomach. T/F true
Which enzymes are responsible for the final chemical breakdown of carbohydrates, amino acids, and nucleic acids? brush border enzymes
Absorbed lipids are transported from intestinal epithelial cells to the lymphatic system in what form? in the form of chylomicrons
In order to prevent self-digestion of the pancreas, activation of pancreatic proteases occurs in the: duodenum
During deglutition, the bolus passes into the stomach from the esophagus through the: gastroesophageal sphincter
During the intestinal phase of gastric regulation the stomach is initially ____ and later _____ stimulated; inhibited
Protective collections of lymphocytes and macrophages occur in: peyers patches
What is the main organic molecule digested in the stomach? proteins
The propulsive function that occurs in the esophagus is called: peristalsis
The large intestine contain a large number of bacteria T/F True
Which regulatory chemical stimulates gastric gland activity and motility? gastrin
List the layers of the walls of the GI tract in order mucosa submucosa muscularis externa serosa
The hepatopancreatic ampulla is formed from the union of the: bile duct and main pancreatic duct.
What would be the effect of stripping the small intestines of their villi? Decreased surface area for absorption would cause weight loss to occur.
List several products produced by the stomach HCL, intrinsic factor, mucous, pepsinogen
The final product of carbohydrate digestion is: monosaccharides
The digestive system in a cadaver is longer than in a living person because, in a cadaver, there is no: muscle tone
The short reflexes in the digestive system are stimulated by: enteric plexus
The mysentery is composed of a layer of serous membrane fused with a layer of mucus membrane. T/F false
The mysentery provides a route for blood vessel, lymphatics, and nerves to reach the digestive viscera. T/f True
What is the most common cause of peritonitis? a burst appendix
The myxovirus causes: mumps
Halitosis is caused by: increased activity of anaerobic bacterial activity at the back of the tongue.
Which dental condition is directly associated with an increased risk for heart disease and stroke? periodontitus
The ___________ phase of gastric secretion is considered a conditioned reflex. cephalic
Vasoactive intestinal peptide is not part of the enterogastrone hormones? T/F False
Hollow organs, like the stomach, that act as reservoirs exhibit: plasticity
Many of the early food allergies seen in infants are caused by: absorption of whole proteins
A condition that affects the large bowel and has no physiological or anatomical cause is: irritable bowel syndrome
Amino-acid absorption is coupled to the active transport of sodium. T/F True (This makes amino-acid absorption ATP dependent.)
Bile digests fats and related lipids. T/F False (Bile is an emulsifying agent.)
Defecation is mediated by a sympathetic spinal cord reflex. T/F False (the reflex is parasympathetic)
In addition to gastrin, the stomach produces serotonin and histamine to regulate smooth muscle contraction and parietal cells' release of HCl, respectively. T/F True (there are three excitatory gastric hormones)
Portal triads contain a branch of the hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein, and bile duct. T/F True
Protein digestion begins in the oral cavity under the action of salivary peptidase. T/F False (Protein digestion begins in the stomach under the action of pepsin.)
The pancreas is a retroperitoneal organ. T/F True (the pancreas does NOT have a serosa layer)
The pyloric sphincter regulates passage of chyme from the stomach into the duodenum. T/F True (During the intestinal phase of gastric activity, the pyloric sphincter is usually closed.)
The vermiform appendix essentially has no purpose. T/F False (The appendix is considered to be a lymphoid structure.)
The hepatopancreatic ampulla is composed of the pancreatic duct and the lesser hepatic duct. T/F False (The common bile duct and the pancreatic duct form the ampulla.)
The order of the large intestines is: cecum, ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon. T/F True
The submucosa is in direct contact with food. T/F False (the mucosa is the innermost layer)
Digested fats are absorbed into intestinal capillaries. T/F False (into lymphatic lacteals)
The submucosal plexus controls the motility of the digestive tract. T/F False (The myenteric plexus controls smooth muscle.)
An adult has 20 teeth. T/F False (32)
The accessory organs for digestion include the teeth, tongue, gallbladder, liver, various digestive glands, the pancreas, and the salivary glands.
The alimentary canal consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine
The major site for nutrient absorption is the _____. small intestine
The primary goal of digestive tract regulatory mechanisms is to optimize nutrient breakdown and absorption. T/F True
The serous membrane that covers the external surface of most digestive organs is called the: visceral peritoneum
_______ circulation collects nutrient-rich blood from the GI tract and delivers it to the liver. hepatic portal
Saliva contains enzymes that break down proteins. T/F False (carbohydrates)
A weak gastroesophageal sphincter can result in heartburn. T/F True
The phases of gastric secretion from first to last are: cephalic phase, gastric phase, intestinal phase.
The increased concentration of HCO3-in blood draining from the stomach is called __________. alkaline tide
The_________ is the first segment of the small intestine. duodenum
Digestion of carbohydrates and proteins by brush border enzymes occurs within the ________ of the small intestine. microvilli
Bile is stored and concentrated in the____. gallbladder
The liver has three lobes T/F false (4)
CCK is found in pancreatic secretions T/F False (Pancreatic juice contains water, enzymes, and electrolytes (mainly bicarbonate ions). Pancreatic enzymes include proteases to digest proteins (i.e. trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, procarboxypeptidase), amylases, lipases, and nucleases)
Most digestion occurs in the small intestine. T/F True
Most water is absorbed in the ________. large intestine
The large intestine produces intrinsic factor T/F False
Diarrhea results when food passes too quickly through the large intestine. True
Pepsin enzymatically digests _____. protein(Lipases digest fats, amylases digest carbohydrates, proteases (like pepsin) digest proteins, and nucleases digest nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA.)
Someone on a fat-free diet would not efficiently absorb vitamin D from their diet. T/F True (fats are needed to absorb vitamin D)
In the ________ of gastric secretion, chyme is moved into the duodenum intestinal phase
Which enzymes are responsible for the final chemical breakdown of carbohydrates, amino acids, and nucleic acids? brush border enzymes
________ is a substance in food used by the body to promote normal growth, maintenance, and repair. A nutrient
______ refers to reactions in which large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules. Catabolism
Secretin and (CCK) are released by the large intestine. T/F False (small intestine)
The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________ lamina propria
Which of the following are types of papillae on the tongue that contain taste buds? fungiform and circumvallate
The ________ phase of gastric secretions occurs before food enters the stomach cephalic (or reflex)
The soft palate rises reflexively to open the nasopharynx when we swallow food. T/F false
Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones or paracrines that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which cell types synthesize and secrete these products? enteroendocrine cells
Hepatocytes produce digestive enzymes T/F False
A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________. bile
Which digestive process normally occurs only in the mouth? ingestion
The _______ circulation includes all of the arteries that serve the digestive organs. splanchnic
The primary dentition consists of _____ teeth. 20
Bile is produced by the: liver
Absorbed lipids are transported from intestinal epithelial cells to the lymphatic system in what form? in the form of chylomicrons
Glycolysis occurs in the ______ of cells and is an _______ process. cytosol; anaerobic
Which nutrient molecule is the pivotal fuel molecule in the oxidative pathways? glucose
Ammonia, which is a byproduct of protein metabolism, is converted to _____ in the ______. urea; liver
The primary goal during the postabsorptive state is to: maintain blood glucose levels within a homeostatic range
______ are considered "bad" cholesterol; high blood levels are believed to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. LDLs
Which term describes the breakdown of stored fats into glycerol and fatty acids? lipolysis
The body's rate of kilocalorie consumption needed to fuel all ongoing activities is called the: total metabolic rate.
Which hormone directs essentially all events of the absorptive state? insulin
A growing child is likely to exhibit negative nitrogen balance. T/F false
What is the most essential role of the liver? protein metabolism
Which brain region is the main integrating center for thermoregulation? hypothalamus
Leptin is a short-term regulator of food intake. T/F false
Most ATP in cellular respiration is generated in glycolysis. false (Glycolysis only yields two ATP molecules per oxidized molecule of glucose. The electron transport chain yields the majority of the ATP produced in the complete oxidation of glucose)
Neurons and red blood cells rely exclusively on ________ to meet their energy needs. glucose
What is the primary function of cellular respiration? to generate ATP
Which nutrients function as coenzymes and are needed in only small amounts? vitamins
The body is able to form glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. T/F True
What is not a fate of carbohydrate taken into the body? conversion to a nucleic acid
In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet, proteins are essential to the body for all of the following except ________. production of energy
Prostaglandins play a role in ________. control of blood pressure
Define negative nitrogen balance? Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis
Oxidation-reduction reactions are catalyzed by which enzymes? dehydrogenases and oxidases
Oxidation reduction reactions ________. may involve the loss of hydrogen and electrons
The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and fatty acids is known as ________. lipolysis
Transamination is the process whereby the amine group of an amino acid is ________. transferred to a keto acid
Which nutrients yield the highest amount of energy per gram when metabolized? fats
In the Krebs cycle, citric acid is followed by ________ acid. isocitric
In order for amino acids to be oxidized for energy, the amine group (NH2) must be removed. T/F true
The increased use of noncarbohydrate molecules for energy to conserve glucose is called glucose sparing. T/F true
As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive state, only the ________ continues to burn glucose while every other organ in the body mostly switches to fatty acids. brain
High levels of HDLs are considered good. T/F true
________ is controlled hyperthermia. fever
A deficit of potassium can cause rickets. T/F false
The amount of ________ produced is probably the most important hormonal factor in determining BMR. thyroxine
_____ processes exceed ______ ones during the absorptive state? Anabolic processes exceed catabolic ones
There are no complete proteins. All animal products should be eaten with plant material to make a complete protein. T/F false
Created by: hkrawietz



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