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Final exam a&p2

What two cuts through the thoracic cavity would result in a piece of heart and lung? Frontal and Transverse
Compared to the other extracellular fluids (interstitial and lymph) blood plasma has a higher concentration of _ Proteins
The primary function of erythrocytes is _ Transportation of oxygen
With what (or how) do red blood cells transport oxygen? Hemoglobin
The first cells that are most active in non-specific inflammation response to foreign antigens are _ and _. Macrophages and Neutrophils
Regarding the cardiovascular system, _ _ formation is a positive feedback mechanism and assists in the maintainance of homeostasis blood clotting
What is necessary to form clotting factors for blood clot formation? Vitamin K
In an ECG, during the QRS wave: What is happening Ventricular Depolarization
What is happening with which valve AV valve is closing
What sound is heard? Lubb sound
Why are red blood cells unable to undergo mitosis? Has no nucleus
What type of tissue is responsible for vasoconstriction and paristalsis? Muscle Tissue
Which blood type is the universal donor? Type O
As stroke and heart rate increases, what else is happening? Blood pressure increases
The chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies stimulate faster and deeper breathing in response to what? Decreased blood oxygen levels
Two organ systems that work together to maintain acid-base homeostasis are Respiratory and Urinary
The primary function form of transportation of carbon dioxide is _ Bicarbonate ions
By what process does oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange occur in alveoli? Simple Diffusion
What type of tissue maintains the open airway in the lower respiratory system? Hyaline Cartilage
Cell structures in pseudostratified columnar epithelial tissue of trachea moves mucous and trapped particles with the help of _ Cillia
The respiratory membrane where oxygen and carbon dioxide gas exchange occurs in the lung consists of what two types of cells? Type 1 alveolar cells and Capillary endothelial cells
During external respiration, blood loses _ and gains _ and where does this take place? Loses carbon dioxide, Gains oxygen, and occurs between air and blood in lung
During internal respiration, blood loses _ and gains _, and where does it occur? loses oxygen, gains carbon dioxide, and occurs between blood and tissue cells
The enzyme _ is important in gas transport by causing carbon dioxide to react with water in plasma to form _ _ and chloride shifts for transport of _ Carbonate anhydrase, Carbonic acid, and Bicarbonate
Which two organ systems work together to provide protection against pathogens entering the body? Integumentary and Lymphatic/immune
Functions of the Lymphatic/Immune system 3
function 1 Regulates excess interstitial fluid back to circulatory system
function 2 Transports dietary lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins (A,D,E,& K)absorbed by the digestive system
function 3 Carries out immune responses-cell mediated and antibody mediated immun responses
Where does lymph rejoin the blood and becomes part of plasma? In the right and left subclavian veins
What is the largest single mass of lyphatic organ? Spleen
Which organ is both endocrine and exocrine gland? Pancreas
Chyme is made less acididc with the help of _ which secretes _ Pancreas; bicarbonate
The most important accessory digestive organs for proper digestion of lipids are _ and _ Liver and gallbladder
What is the function of microvilli Increases surface area of small intestine for absorption
Primary function of the Large intestine Absorption of water and electrolytes
Buffers prevent drastic changes in the ph of the body fluid by: Converting strong acids and bases into weak acids and bases
Which organs are retroperitoneal? Kidneys, Ureters, and adrenal Glands
Through the production of erythropoietin by the kidney the urinary system is interacting with which two other systems? Skeletal and Circulatory (cardiovascular)
The majority of tubular reabsorption of dissolved ions and other substances occur where? Proximal convoluted tubule
The process of glomerular filtration in the kidney is driven by _ _ Hydrostatic pressure
Hormones that regulate the urinary system: Angiotensin 2, Aldosterone, Antidiuretic hormone, Atrial Natriuretic peptide, and Parathyroid hormone
Kidneys eliminate acids as _ _ Hydrogen ions
Loss of __ form the body through urine excretion regulates pH balance of the body Bicarbonate ions
Sequence of nephron tubules Glomerule capsule, proximal convuluted tubule, descending limb of the loop of Henle, Ascending limb of the loop of Henle, Distal convoluted tubule, and collecting duct
The endocrine system works with the _ system to regulate all other body functions. Nervous
In order to stimulate anterior pituitary hormones, the hypothalamus produces _ hormones? Releasing
_ hormones influence target cells by turning on genes on DNA to produce specific proteins. Are they water soluble or lipid? Steroid hormones, Lipid solubles
Do hormones use positive or negative feedback systems? Negative feedback systems
Endocrine cells that make and secrete protein based hormones would have a great amount of what two organelles? Golgi complex and Rough ER (endoplasmic reticulum)
From follicular cells and parafollicular cells, the thyroid secretes _, _, and _ T3, t4, and calcitonin
Male reproductive functions are regulated by hormones from what three places? hypothalamus, Anterior pituitary glands, and interstitial cells of testes
Difference between spermatogenesis and oogenisis: Spermatogenesis results in _ cells, whereas oogenesis results in _ cell 4, 1
If the testes fail to descend a males is infertile because sperm cell formation is prevented by _ Relatively high internal body temperature
When egg cells are released from follicles in the ovaries, they are swept into the fallopian tube by _ and _ fimbrae and cillia
In order to reach the egg, sperm cells must swim in sequence through: Vagina, cervix, uterus, and fallopian tube
positive feedback making blood clots
Gastrin secreted by G cells stimulates secretion of- HCI denature protein
Created by: mbrewer86



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