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UAG - Nervous system

Structural Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) - brain and spinal cord<P><P><P>Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) - remainder of nervous system outside of the CNS
Functional Nervous System Somatic Nervous System (SNS)<P><P><P>Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
Nervous Tissue two main cell types<P>1. Neurons (nerve cells)<P>2. Neuroglia (glial cells) which support the neurons
Neurons structural & functional units of nervous system for rapid communication; cell body with dendrites (impulses to body) & an axon (impulses away from body)<P>myelin sheath=myelin(layers of lipid) + protein substances to increase velocity of impulses
Multipolar motor neurons 2+ dendrites & single axon that may have 1+ collateral branches; most common in CNS & PNS; all motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles & comprising the ANS
Pseudounipolar sensory neurons short, apparently single (but double), process extending from cell body; into peripheral process conducting from receptor organ (touch/pain/temp) toward the cell body & a central process continuing from cell body in CNS; outside CNS in sensory ganglia
Neuroglia (glial cells/glia) approx 5 times as abundant as neurons, non-neuronal/excitable cells forming major component of nervous tissue, supporting/insulating/nourishing neurons
Central Nervous System (CNS) brain and spinal cord; integrate & coordinate incoming and outgoing neural signals & to carry out higher mental functions (thinking & learning)
Gray Matter made of nerve cell bodies in the CNS=nucleus; in transverse section of spinal cord, gray matter appears to be an "H" in the white matter; right & left posterior(dorsal)/anterior(ventral) horns=supports of the "H"
White Matter interconnecting fiber tract system (bundle of nerve fibers/axons within the CNS connecting neighboring or distant nuclei of cerebral cortex)
Meninges 1. Pia Mater - innermost, delicate, transparent layer <P>2. Arachnoid Mater - middle layer <P>3. Dura Mater - thick, tough layer<P><P><P>Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is b/w pia mater & arachnoid mater
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) consists of nerve fibers & cell bodies outside CNS that conduct impulses to or away from CNS; organized into nerves that connect CNS with peripheral structures
Nerve Fiber axon, neurolemma (cell membranes of Schwann cells surrounding axon,has 2 forms), & surrounding endoneurial connective tissue
Nerve Fiber - classes 1. myelinated, consisting of Schwann cells specific to individual axon, organized in a continuous series forming myelin cells <P>2. unmyelinated, composed of Schwann cells that don't make up an apparent series, multiple axons are separately embedded
Nerve tissue coverings 1.Endoneurium =delicate, immediately surrounding neurilemma cells/axon<P>2.Perineurium =dense connective tissue enclosing fascicle, effective barrier against foreign substances<P>3.Epineurium =thick connective sheath around bundle of fascicles
PNS afferent (sensory) fibers convey neural impulses to the CNS from the sense organs (e.g., the eyes) & from sensory receptors in various parts of the body (e.g., in the skin)
PNS efferent (motor) fibers convey neural impulses from the CNS to effector organs (muscles and glands)
Cranial Nerves exit the cranial cavity through foramina (openings), identified by descriptive name or Roman numeral; 11 of the 12 pairs arise from the brain, the other pair arises from the superior part of the spinal cord
Spinal (Segmental) Nerves exit the vertebral column (spine) through intervertebral foramina; bilateral pairs from specific segment of the spinal cord; 31 spinal cord segments & 31 pairs of nerves are identified by letter & number (Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral, Coccygeal)
Spinal Nerves - roots arise from rootlets & converge to form 2 nerve roots<P>1.Anterior(ventral) =motor(efferent)fibers, from nerve cell bodies to effector organs<P>2.Posterior(dorsal) =sensory(afferent)fibers from cell bodies in spinal sensory to spinal cord gray matter
Rami of Spinal Nerves - motor & sensory 1. Posterior (1*)=supply nerve fibers to synovial joints of spine, deep muscles of back, & overlying skin in segmental pattern<P>2. Anterior (1*)=supply nerve fibers to larger remaining area, anterior/lateral regions of trunk & UL/LL, most merge together
Created by: sgarcia31



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