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Glut. + post. thigh

Gluteal region and posterior thigh

QuestionAnswer
* * What are the muscles of the gluteal region? Gluteus maximus, gluteus medias, gluteus minimus,
* * What is the innervation and action of the gluteus maximus? Inferior gluteal nerve; extends and laterally rotates the femur, helps maintain kneejoint in extension
* * What is the innervation and action of the gluteus medius? Superior gluteal nerve; abducts and medially rotates the thigh
* * What is the innervation and action of the gluteus minimus? superior gluteal nerve; abducts and medially rotates the thigh
What muscles carry out extension of the femur at the hip during normal gait? During exertion? Hamstrings; glutteus maximus
When is the gluteus maximus DEFINITIVELY needed? Rapid + powerful extensions: climbing, going up stairs, getting up from a squatting position
* What causes Trendelburg gait (muscle, nerve)? How will this show up? Paralysis of the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus (e.g. from superior gluteal nerve paralysis). Patient will lean towards the side of the injury.
* * What are the chief abductors of the thigh? Gluteus medius and minimus; equally important function is steadying pelvis while walking (e.g. raise foot off ground , contraction of the gluteal muscles of the opposite side)
* * What is the innervation and action of the tensor fasciae latae? Superior gluteal nerve; flexes and adducts the thigh (helps keep knee extended too via insertions into iliotibial tract)
* * What is the innervation and action of the piriformis? N: nerve to the piriformis; laterally rotates the thigh
* * What is the innervation and action of the obturator internus? Nerve to the internus; laterally rotates the thigh
* * What is the innervation and action of the superior gemellus? Nerve to the obturator internus; laterally rotates the thigh
* * What is the innervation and action of the inferior gemellus? Nerve to the quadratus femoris; laterally rotates the thigh
* * What is the innervation and action of the quadratus femoris? Nerve to the quadratus femoris; laterally rotates the thigh
What spinal nerves make up the sacral plexus? Lumbosacral trunk (L4, L5); Ventral rami of S1-S4
What are the major branches of the sacral plexus? Sciatic nerve (L4-S3), Posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh, superior gluteal nerve, inferior gluteal nerve, nerve of the quadratus femoris, pudental nerve and nerve to obturator internus
* * Describe the sciatic nerve: source, branches Emerges from pelvis through greater sciatic foramen * BELOW the piriformis muscle; two nerves: tibial nerve, common fibular nerve
* Describe the course of the sciatic nerve Runs down successively on posterior surface of the superior gemellus, obturator internus, inferior gemellus, and quadratus femoris to reach the adductor magnus
Occasionally, the common fibular portion leaves the sciatic nerve high in the pelvis and appears in the gluteal region by passing ___ or ____ the piriformis muscle. Above; through
* Posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh: where does it come out of? what does it supply? passes out greater sciatic foramen below piriformis and passes downward just medial/posterior sciatic nerve; gives off inferior cluneal branches and perineal branches while still lying below glutteus maximus; SUPPLIES POSTERIOR THIGH
* Superior gluteal nerve: where does it come out of? what does it supply? Exits greater sciatic foramen above the piriformis muscle and runs in the plane between the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus; supplies the gluteus medius and tensor fasciae latae muscles
* Inferior gluteal nerve: what does it supply? Where does it come from? exits greater sciatic foramen below level of the piriformis; supplies gluteus maximus
* What does the nerve to the quadratus femoris supply? Where does it arise from? Exits greater sciatic foramen below piriformis; supplies quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus
* Where do the pudental nerve and the nerve to the obturator internus arise from? Exit pelvis through greater sciatic foramen below piriformis; hook around ischial spine or sacrospinous ligament with internal pudental vessels and pass through lesser sciatic forament to enter ischiorectal fossa of perineum
What does the pudental nerve supply? The perineum
What does the nerve to the obturator supply? obturator internus and superior gemellus
* * What are the muscles of the posterior compartment of the thigh? Biceps femoris, semitendinosus, seminmembranosus, hamstring portion of the eadductor magnus
* What is the blood supply to the posterior compartment of the thigh? Profunda femoris artery
* What is the nerve supply to the posterior compartment of the thigh? Tibial division of the sciatic nerve
* What is the major action of the posterior thigh muscles? Extension of the thigh and flexion of the leg
* * What is the nerve and action of the biceps femoris? Long head: tibial nerve, Short head: common fibular nerve; extends thigh, flexes and laterally rotates the leg
* * What is the nerve and action of the semitendinosus? Tibial nerve; extends thigh, flexes and medially rotates the leg
* * What is the nerve and action of the semimembranous muscle? Tibial nerve; extends thigh, flexes and medially rotates the leg
The tendon of the semimembranosus gives off a heavy lateral expansion, which runs obliquely across the posterior surface of the knee joint Oblique popliteal ligament
* * * What muscles are involved in hamstring injures? Ligaments? Common in sports; involve tearing of the PROXIMAL TENDINOUS ATTACHAMENTS OF THE ISCHEAL TUBEROSITY; tearing of tendinous fibers is very painful
* Describe the pes anserinus tendons Inverted tripod configuration composed of the sartorius (gemoral n.), gracilus (obturator n.), and semitendinous (tibial n.) tendons; they work to flex knee joint and provide additional support to knee joing
* * Describe the popliteal fossa (boundaries) Superolateral: biceps femoris, superomedial: semimebranosus and semitendinosus; inferomedial and inferolateral: gastrocemius muscle bellies
* What are the contents of the popliteal fossa (superficial to deep) Superficial: fat, small saphenous vein, three cutaneous nerves; Deep: Popliteal artery and vein, tibial and common peroneal nerves, and popliteal lymph nodes
* * What are the contents of the popliteal fossa medial to lateral and deep to superficial? Popliteal artery, vein, and tibial nerve
The ____ artery is a continuation of the femoral artery after passing through the ____ hiatus.
What are the terminal branches of the popliteal artery? Where do they branch off? Branch off at lower border of popliteus muscle, dividing into ANTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERY and POSTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERY
Within the fossa, the popliteal artery gives off ___ branches supplying the knee joint and related structures genicular
What vein does the popliteal vein receive? The small saphenous vein
Created by: karkis77