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UAG - Upper Limb

UAG - Bones, Upper Limb

Upper Limb Major Segments Shoulder, Arm, Forearm, Hand
Shoulder proximal segment, overlaps trunk (thorax & back) & lower lateral neck: Pectoral, Scapular, & Deltoid regions
Pectoral (shoulder) Girdle bony ring, incomplete posteriorly, formed by the scapulae and clavicles and completed anteriorly by the manubrium of the sternum
Arm L. brachium; centered around Humerus, longest segment of the limb
Forearm L. antebrachium; Radius & Ulna, second longest segment of limb
Hand L. manus; Carpus, Metacarpus, & Phalanges; distal to the forearm (wrist, palm, dorsum of hand, and digits)
Clavicle (collar bone) shaft=double curve/horizontal plane; medial half=convex anteriorly; sternal end=enlarged/triangular where it meets with manubrium of sternum; lateral half=concave; acromial end=flat where it meets with acromion of scapula
Clavicle (collar bone) Functions 1. moveable/crane-like strut (rigid support) from which the scapula & free limb are suspended, limb has max ROM 2. bony boundary for cervico-axillary canal (neck/arm) to protect neurovascular supply 3.transmits shock from upper limb>axial skeleton
Scapula (shoulder blade) triangular flat bone; posterolateral of thorax, overlying the 2nd-7th ribs; convex posterior surface w/bone ridge=spine-->small supraspinous fossa & large infraspinous fossa; concave coastal surface=supscapular fossa
Humerus (arm bone) largest bone in upper limb; articulates w/ scapula @Glenohumeral joint & Radius/Ulna @elbow joint; head, surgical & anatomical necks, greater & lesser tubercles =proximal end; shaft=radial & deltoid; distal end=medial & lateral epicondyles
Ulna can't pivot; stabilizing bone; medial & longer in forearm; w/humerus=olecranon (projects proximally from posterior for elbow) & coronoid process (projects anteriorly)>>form walls of trochlear notch; doesn't attach to wrist
Radius pivots; lateral & shorter in forearm; proximal end=short head(concave),neck(constriction distal to head),& medially directed tuberosity(distal to medial neck)
Bones of the Hand Carpal bones (proximal & distal rows), Metacarpals of the palm, & Phalanges of the fingers/digits
Carpus (wrist) 8 bones; Proximal row (lat>med): Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiform Distal row (lat>med): Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate
Scaphoid (G. skaphé, skiff, boat) a boat-shaped bone that articulates proximally with the radius and has a prominent scaphoid tubercle; it is the largest bone in the proximal row of carpals
Lunate (L. luna, moon) a moon-shaped bone between the scaphoid and the triquetral bones; it articulates proximally with the radius and is broader anteriorly than posteriorly
Triquetrum (L. triquetrus, three-cornered) a pyramidal bone on the medial side of the carpus; it articulates proximally with the articular disc of the distal radio-ulnar joint
Pisiform (L. pisum, pea) a small, pea-shaped bone that lies on the palmar surface of the triquetrum
Trapezium (G. trapeze, table) a four-sided bone on the lateral side of the carpus; it articulates with the 1st and 2nd metacarpals, scaphoid, and trapezoid bones
Trapezoid a wedge-shaped bone that resembles the trapezium; it articulates with the 2nd metacarpal, trapezium, capitate, and scaphoid bones
Capitate (L. caput, head) a head-shaped bone with a rounded extremity and the largest bone in the carpus; it articulates primarily with the 3rd metacarpal distally and with the trapezoid, scaphoid, lunate, and hamate
Hamate (L. hamulus, a little hook) a wedge-shaped bone on the medial side of the hand; it articulates with the 4th and 5th metacarpal, capitate, and triquetral bones; it has a distinctive hooked process, the hook of the hamate, that extends anteriorly
Metacarpus skeleton of the palm, b/w carpus & phalanges; 5 metacarpal bones; metacarpal=base (proximal & articulate w/carpals), shaft & head (distal & articulate w/proximal phalanges & form knuckles); 1st=thumb (thick/short), 3rd=styloid process
Phalanges 3 per digit except for thumb(2); has proximal base/large, shaft(body)/medium, & distal head/small
Created by: sgarcia31



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