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Joints of Upper limb

Joints of the Upper Limb

Describe the sternoclavicular join Saddle type joint; only joint between upper limb and axial skeleton; clavicle holds up upper limb away from chest
* * What are the ligaments of the sternoclavicular joint? Anterior and posterior sternoclavicular ligaments; COSTOCLAVICULAR LIGAMENT (main support of joint)
Where is the acromioclavicular joint? It is the joint between the acromion process of the scapula and the acromial extremity of the clavicle
What is the coracoclavicular ligament? MAIN SUPPORT OF THE JOINT; coracoid process of scapula to the undersurface of the clavicle; largely responsible for suspending the weight of the scapula and upper limb from clavicle
What is the acromioclavicular dislocation? What causes it? Should dislocation. Minor injury that breaks the FIBROUS CAPSULE of the joint; Acromion process thrust beneath the lateral end of the clavicle and clavicle is elevated; should falls away from clavicle because of weight of the upper limb
What is the articulation of the shoulder joint? Glenohumeral joint: head of humerus in glenoid cavity of the scapula
What is the glenoid labrum? rim of fribocartilage surrounding the glenoid cavity
Where is the articular surface of the glenohumeral joint weakest? Inferiorly
What is the glenohumeral ligaments (superior, middle, and inferior)? To what part of the shoulder joint do they provide additional support? Anterior thickenings of the capsule to strengthen the capsule ANTERIORLY
* * What muuscle tendon provides support to the shoulder superiorly, posteriorly, anteriorly, and inferiorly? Superior: Supraspinatus; Posterior: Infraspinatous and teres minor tendons; Anterior: Subscapularis tendon; Inferior: NONE
What structure prevents superior displacement of the head of the humerus? The coracoacromial arch
* * What muscles are responsible for flexion of the shoulder joint? Anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, biceps brachii, coracobrachialis
* * What muscles are responsible for extension of the shoulder joint? Posterior deltoid, latissiumus dorsi, teres major
* * What muscles are responsible for abduction of the shoulder joint? supraspinatus and middle deltoid
* * What muscles are responsible for adduction of the shoulder joint? pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, teres major AND teres minor
* * What are the muscles responsible for lateral rotation of the shoulder joint? infraspinatus, teres minor, posterior deltoid
* * What muscles are responsible for medial of the shoulder joint? Subscapularis, latissimus dorsi, teres major, anterior dltoid, pectoralis major
* * What muscles are responsible for circumduction of the shoulder joint? Combination of flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, lateral rotatio, and medial rotation
* * Describe how one could get an anterior-inferior dislocation of the rotator cuff; what can get hurt here? Sudden violence applied to humerus when joint is fully abducted-->inferior part of capsule tears and humeral head is displaced inferior to glenoid cavity; axillary nerve
* * Describe how one could get posterior dislocation of the rotator cuff; what can get hurt here? Rare; caused by sudden direct violence to front of joint capsule; results in subglenoid displacement of the humeral head into quadrangular space; can hurt axillary nerve (paralysis of deltoid and loss of skin sensation over lower half of deltoid)
* * What are the two main disorders of the rotator cuff? What muscle is most typically involved? impingement and tendinopathy; supraspinatus, as it passes BENEATH acromion and acromioclavicular ligament
Swelling of the supraspinatous muscle or excessive fluid within the subacromial/subdeltoid burse may cause significant ____ when the arm is abducted. IMPINGEMENT
Recurrent inflammation of the subquadrangular space of the tendon causes degeneration which may result in calcium deposition and extreme paiN; this is known as... SUPRASPINATUS TENDINOPATHY
What is a typical sign of supraspinatus inflammation/impingement? Extreme pain during abduction; patients may also have inflammation in subacromial bursa, making pain worse
What two bones articulate at the elbow joint? The trochlea (ulna) and the capitulum (head of radius); it is a synovial hinge joint
What bones articulate at the proximal radioulnar joint? The head of the radius the radial notch of the ulna
What are the motions allowed by the proximal radioulnar joint? Supination and pronation
What attaches the margins of the radial notch, forming a collar around the head of the radius? The annular ligament; NOT directly attached to radius
* * How do you get a pulled elbow? What ligament is involved? Sudden lifting of a young child by one arm when it is pronated, causing tearing of the annular ligament; radial head moves distally partially out of ANULAR ligament
What bones are involved in the distal radioulnar joint? What motions are allowed? The head of ulna and the ulnar notch of the radius; supination and pronation
* * What is the articular disc? Triangular shaped disc composed of fibrocartilage; chief support uniting the distal radius and ulna; SEPARATES THE ULNA FROM THE WRIST JOINT
What bones are involved int he wrist joint? The distal radius and the articular disc: scaphoid, lunate, and triquetral; ellipsoid type of synovial joint
What prevents the wrist joint from abducting laterally? Radial styloid process
Created by: karkis77



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