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Glossary Case # 3

Hillcrest Transcription, Case #3 The Cardiopulmonary System

Acute hepatic failure The sudden onset of liver failure
alveolitis inflammation of alveoli (air sacs in the lung)
asystolic absence of a heartbeat
atrial fibrillation rapid, irregular contractions of the atria (upper chambers of the heart)
atrial flutter rapid contractions of the atria, more regular than fibrillation
axillary pertaing to the armpit
axial sections referring to the parts of the brain examined by CT scan, which is done in sections throughout the center of the brain.
basal ganglia calcifications deposits of calcium in basal ganglia (groups of nerve cells in the brain)
Bilateral occurring on both sides
bleb an abnormal air-filled sac in emphysematous lung tissue
bronchoscopy examination of the brochi through a bronchoscope ( a sugical procedure)
brushings to obtain cell samples using a brush; this material can be sent to histologic or cytologic evaluation
carina a ridgelike structure where the trachea divides into the left and right main stem bronchi
cavitary lesions abnormal tissue areas containing cavities
cerebral edema excessive accumulation of fluid in the brain substance that causes swelling
Code Blue Medical jargon meaning a patien's hearbeat and /or respirations have ceased, calling for immediate resuscitation procedures (CPR)
congestion swelling of blood vessels due to engorgement with blood
cords referring to the vocal cords
cortical atrophy death of cells in the cerebral cortes (part of the brain)
coumadin trade name for warfarin sodium, an anticoagulant drug
CT abbreviation for computer tomography
CT scan a procedure in which x-ray images are analyzed and combined by a computer to yield views representing thin slices of the part examined
dialysis catheter tubular instrument inserted into a major vein in order to filter the blood of impurities; done in patients whose kidneys have less than normal function
dilatation the condition of being stretch (dilated) beyond normal dimensions
echocardiogram an image produced by recording an echo obtained from beams of ultrasonic waves directed through the chest wall and bouncing back from the heart; it dipicts the structure of the heart
effusion the escape of fluid into a body part or tissue
ejection fraction the proportion of the volume of blood in the ventricles at the end of diastole that is ejected during systole
EKG leads conductors connected ot an electrocardiograph (EKG) machine
embolectomy surgical removal of a blood clot (embolus) from a blood vessel
endobronchial within the bronchi
epiglottis the lidlike cartilaginous structure that fold back over the opening of the windpipe during swallowing, which prevents frood from entering the lungs.
ET tube abbreviation for endotracheal tube, a tube inserted into trachea (windpipe) to assist in ventilating the patient
etiology cause or origin of a disease or disorder
fungemia the presence of a fungal growth in the blood stream
gastrostomy tube tube inserted through a surgical opening into the stomach, through which nutrition and medication are supplied to the patient
glottis the opening between the vocal cords and the larynx
Hemoccult trade name for a test to discover occult (hidden)blood in the stool
hemodialysis the removal of waste substances from the blood by means of hemodialyzer
hemoptysis the expectoration or spitting up of blood or blood-stained sputum
hepatosplenomegaly enlargment of the liver and spleen
high-flow oxygen oxygen administered to a patient via the highest setting on the oxygen machine (as opposed to low-flow oxygen, which is at a lower setting)
hilar pertaining to the depression, notch, or opening where the vessels and nerves enter an organ
HPI abbreviation for history of present illness
hydrocephalus an incresae in the volume of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the cerebrum
hypokinesia abnormally decreased motor function or activity
hypoxemic pertaining to deficient oxygenation of the blood
idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis hardening of the pulmonary (lung) structures of either unknown or spontaneous origin
infiltrate (v) to penetrate small openings of a tissue or substance; (n) when present on chest x-ray it indicates pneumonia
INR international normalized ration (see laboratory sicussion on page 000)
intraoperatively during an operative procedure (surgery)
intravenous within or through a vein
intravenous contrast material inserted into a vein that allows differences in tissues to be delineated; used in radiology and cardiology procedures
intubated the condition of having a tube inserted into a body canal or hollow organ
intubation the insertion of a tube into a body canal or hollow organ
Klebsiella pneumoniae one etiologic agent of acute bacterial pneumonia (microbiology genus and species name)
lesion a traumatic break in tissue or pathologic loss of function of a part of the body
low-flow oxygen oxygen administered to a patient via the lowest setting on the oxygen machine (as opposed to high-flow oxygen, which is at a hight setting)
lymphadenopathy disease of the lymph nodes
malaise a vague feeling of body disconfort
mechanical ventilation ventilation (breathing) supported or provided by a machine
mediastinal pertaining to the membranous partition separating the lungs or the two pleural sac
MVA abbreviation for motor vehicle accident
myocardial infarction gross necrosis of the myocardium due to lack of blood supply to the area (heart attack)
nephrologist a specialist in the study of the kidney
open-lung biopsy taking a small sample of apparently diseased tissue in surgery while the lungs are exposed (as poosed to a brush biopsy or a procedure with the lungs not exposed)
palpitations(s) rapid or irregular heart-beat(s), primarily used in the plural form
parenchymal pertaining to the essential elements of an organ, i.e., the functional elements of an organ
pleural pertaining to serous membrane that covers the lungs and lining of the thoracic cavity.
prothrombin time a test for coagualtion factos of the blood (see laboratory discussion on page 198-1990
pseudocords false cords (long, rounded structures)
pulmonary pertaining to the lungs
plumonary vascular congestion engorgement of pulmonary vessels occurring in cardiac disease, infections, and certain bodily injuries.
rhonchus (pl. rhonchi) a continous dry rattling sound (heard on auscultation) in the throat or bronchial tube due to some type of obstruction
S1, S2, S3, S4 First, second, third and fourth heart sounds; may be heard while listening to the heart via stethoscope: S1 and S2 are normal sounds; S3 and S4 are not normally heard
septicemia toxins in the blood, also called bood poisoning
sputum material coughed up from the lower respiratory tract
subarachnoid hemorrahages hemorrhage (bursting forth of blood) at or between the arachnoid and pia mater of the brain
supraventricular cardiac arrhythmias irregularity in the rhythm of the heart starting from a focus above the ventricles
Swan-Ganz catherter a catherter with a balloon at the tip of measuring pulmonary arterial pressures, trade name
thorax chest
thrombosis formation or presence fo a thrombus or blood clot
trachea windpipe
trachostomy surgical opening into the trachea
tuberculosis an infectious disease of the lung
ventricles lower chambers of the heart
Versed trade name for a nonbarbiturate drug given intravenously (either before or during surgery) to produce sedation and amnesia
WNL abbreviation for within normal limits
Xylocaine trade name for lidocaine, a topical anesthetic drug
amphoric a hollow sound resulting from perscussion over a lung cavity
Created by: koka2k1