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Spinal Anatomy

Emphasis: Bones of the Spine with its supporting structures

There are __ cervical, __ lumbar and __ thoracic vertebrae in the human body. 7,5, 12
The condition of having SI1 unconnected from the rest of the sacrum is calle lumbarization
The fetal curve is __ in the posterior and __ in the anterior convex, concave
WOTF is not a structure on the occipital bone? EOP Superior nuchal line Condyle Mastoid foramen condyle
The head and the trunk are balanced by this type of curve? lumbar
Juxtaposition refers to its position in reference to the relationship to __ vertebra(e). 2
The cervical curve and the lumbar curve are curves of what type? secondary and lordotic
What are the two systems that form first in the body? heart, spine
What is the precursor to the spine? notochord, primitive streak
The remnants of the notochord make up which anatomical part of the human adult? nucleus pulposis
What is a normal amount of somite pairs for a month old developing embryo? 38
Which region of a somite will eventually develop vertebrae? sclerotome
WOTF best describes a dermatome? area of body supplied by a sensory nerve
Primary ossification starts during the __ week of fetal life. 10th
The most anterior portion of the occiput is: basilar process
The sphenoid bone is fused with __, the most anterior bone of the occiput. basilar process
The medulla oblongata is the: brain stem
What is on the external surface of the basilar portion? pharyngeal tubercle
On the medial side of each condyle is a tubercle called: unnamed tubercle
What is the function for the hypoglossal canal? holds the hypoglossa nerve (12th cranial nerve)
The neural ring in the lumbrar spine is __. triangular
This boiny projection of bone located laterally from the condyles is the __. It is an attachment point for muscles and ligaments. jugular process
The nucleus pulposis is a remnant of the notochord, which originates from the __. mesoderm
A line on the occiput that that runs inferior and slightly lateral is the inferior nuchal line. true
What is lateral to the internal occipital crest? cerebellar fossa
The external occipital crest has __ ridge(s). 1
The internal occipital crest has __ ridge(s). 4
The pharyngeal tubercle is a structure on the occiput true
A __ in the disc causes degeneration loss of water
Which vertebra is labeled typical C-6
Severe disc degeneration leads to WOTF diseases? Sclerosis Osteoarthritis Scoliosis Paget's disease Osteoarthritis
The vertebral body is also known as the centrum. true
One disc, which is smalles in height compared to the others, shows WOTF conditions? disc degeneration
The vertebral body is __ on its superior and __ on its inferior surfaces. concave, concave
Joints of Lushka are found in the cervicals
These roots project posteriorly and laterally from the corner of the vertebral bodies. pedicles
A pedicle has a concavity. true
Epistropheus is referred to as C2
These are considered arches. laminae
WOTF does not have a disc? between C1 and C2
Ribs __ and __ are floating ribs 11, 12
The vertebral arteries carry roughly about __% of the total blood carried to the brain 40%
Transverse processes project __, __ and __ at C7 lateral, inferior, posterior
What artery goes through the transverse foramen? vertebral
Spinous processes are attachment points for muscles and ligaments true
Muscles are derived from the __, which is responsible for the development of somites. mesoderm
What does the surface of the articular facets consist of? hyaline cartilage
WOTF is not part of the suboccipital triangle? Superior Oblique Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor Rectus Capitis Posterior Major Inferior Oblique Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor
The neural ring for a typical cervical vertebra is __ in shape. triangular
Spinal stenosis is congenital true
The neural ring is also known as (A.K.A.) spinal canal, neural canal
The atlas has __ lateral masses 2
One lateral mass makes up __% of the total ring of atlas. 20%
The superior surfaces of the lateral masses of the atlas are kidney shaped bones. true
The little bump on the anterior portion of the anterior arch is known as this: anterior tubercle
The fovea dentalis is the point of articulation for the __. axis and the atlas
The average female spine is 25 inches. true
25% of the length of the spine is made by the __. It makes up __ inches of the spine. intervertebral discs, 6 1/4 - 7 inches
The most posterior portion of the atlas is called the posterior tubercle. true
The second cervical nerve attaches to the __ surface of the posterior arch. inferior
Neurovascular bundle consists of: nerves, segmental artery, veins (all of the above)
The first cervical nerve is also known as the suboccipital nerve
The transverse processes of the atlas are located __ and __ to the mastoid bone. inferior, medial
C2 is called the Axis, Epistropheus
Posterior arch makes up 40% of the atlas true
The major point of rotation for the cervical spine is the axis
The large tooth-like process on the axis is called: Odontoid process
The __ ligament is most anterior. apical
The superior articular surfaces of the axis articulate with the inferior surfaces of the atlas. true
Os odontoideum is a condition where the odontoid does not join on the body of the axis. This is __. congenital
Os odontoideum is a condition where the odontoid can have porous edges. false, jagged or smooth
The transverse process of __ has a carotid tubercle C6
Atypical vertebrae of C-1, C-2 and C-7
Thoracic vertebrae have __ shaped vertebral bodies heart
Which vertebrae articulate with the ribs in the general population? thoracic
What are found at the posterior, superior corners of the vertebral body of the typical thoracic vertebrae? superior costal facets
Typical thoracic vertebrae have __ facets. 4
There are __ moveable vertebrae in the body 24
T1 transverse processes project lateral, __ and __. superior, posterior
The two superior articular processes in thoracic vertebrae project __ and __ from the LPJ. superior, posterior
Which is true of the spinal canal? #82 all of the above
Transverse processes contain __ in the thoracic vertebrae all of the above
Atypical vertebrae are T1, T10, T11, T12 and T9
T1 has 2 whole superior facets, a rib attached to it
TThe whole facets of T1 will attach to a rib. true
Rib 1 articulates with the vertebral body of T1 and the transverse facet of the T1 transverse process. true
T9 is atypical because of WOTF conditions? 1 inferior demifacet may or may not be present
T10 has no inferior demi facet. true
T10 has a largemfull facet inferiorly. false, superiorly
If there were an inferior facet on T9 it would attach to the __ of T10. transverse process
T11 and T12 are called floating ribs because they don't attach to transverse processes
The superior tubercle on T12 is like the lumbar mamillary process
The __ process is lateral to the mamillary process. accessory
Cervical rib usually occurs at __ transverse process. C7
The neural ring ins in thoracic part of the spine are __ shaped. circular
Which two vertebrae have the largest spinous processes? (Hint: Either one can be known as the Vertebra Prominence). C7, T1
This vertebra will move freely forward with extension of the head. C4 C2 C3 C6 all of the above all of the above
Secondary ossification only occurs after birth. true
The vertebral body of a typical lumbar is heart shaped. false, kidney shaped
There are __ cranial nerves in the human body. 12
Two lamina come together to form a single, large, blunt spinous process in the lumbars. true
There are __ articular processes in typical thoracic vertebrae. The superior articular process projects __ and the inferior articular process projects __ from the LPJ. 4, superior, inferior
Scotty Dog is also known as (A.K.A) Pars Interarticularis
The body shape of the cervical vertebrae is oval
When the superior facets of L5 are facing the same way as the inferior facets of L4, the condition is known as Lumbosacral facet syndrome
Chiropractors use the __ as a segmental contact point when adjusting the lumbars mamillary process
WOTF is not a characteristic of L5? there is a rounded spinous process
There are two accessory processes in the lumbars and they are superior to the transverse process. false, accessory processes are at the same level as transverse processes.
The sacral pump is important because it circulates cerebro-spinal fluid. true
What projects laterally from the base of the sacrum? Sacral Ala
This bone(s) project laterally from the sacral hiatus Sacral cornu
The sacrum can be described as a(n) inverted triangle
WOTF is an anatomical structure of the coccyx? Transverse process of coccyx
The base of the sacrum articulates with the L5
Sacrum has two articular processes true
The most inferior anatomical structure is the __. Sacral Cornu
There are 8 foramen in the sacrum. true
The posterior primary divisions are posterior nerves that exit out of WOTF foramen? sacral foramen
Embryologically, there are four sacral segments. false, 5
Sacrum tubercles are also known as the __. median sacral crest
Intermediate sacral crest is homologous to articular process
S1 doesn't have a tubercle, so we can have extension in movement. true
The sacral hiatus is generally superior to the sacral horn. true
Transverse ridge lines can be found on the pelvic (anterior) surface of the sacrum. true
Ala is most representative of the term wing
The last intervertebral disc is between L5 and S1
Lateral surfaces of the sacrum are called auricular surfaces. They look like: ears
Auricular surface of the ilium articulates with the auricular surface of the sacrum
Coccyx and the sacrum are both inverted triangles. true
The area surrounding the nucleus pulposis in the intervertebral disc is called the annulus fibrosus. true
All of the following are found on the pelvic surface of the sacrum except: intermediate sacral crest
The 3 horizontal ridges do not represent the articulations of the four previous individual coccyx segments. false, do represent
The PSIS is found at the same level as S2
The PSOS is not a segmental contact point for chiropractors. false
WOTF is not a type of hip bone? ilium pubis ischium all of the above form the hip bones all of the above form the hip bones
Which bone makes up 40% of the acetabulum? ilium
The descending ramus is inferior to the ascending ramus of the ischium. true
The ischial spine is __ to the ischial tuberosity. superior
The body of the ischium goes toward the posterior
The superior ramus of the pubic bone is connected to the pubic tubercle
The superior pubic ramus is superior to the ischial tuberosity
How many spinal nerves (not pairs)are there in the human body? 62
Where does the 8th spinal nerve reside? between C7 and T1
How many coccygeal nerves are there? 1 The one coccygeal nerve is called the coccygeal nerve.
The first spinal nerve is called the suboccipital
The medulla oblongata is directly superior to the Spinal cord
The __ is the most posterior and the __ is the most anterior structures of the hip bones in the standing position. PSIS, pubic tubercle
The first spinal nerve is between occiput and C1
The 2nd spinal nerve is found between C1 and C2
The termination of the spinal cord is at Conus medullaris
The first cervical nerve exits above C2 vertebra, false, above C1 vertebra
Created by: chad.dorris