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Arm and flexors

The arms and flexor forearm

QuestionAnswer
What are the muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm? Biceps brachii, brachialis, and the coracobrachialis
What nerve supplies the anterior compartment of the arm? The musculocutaneous nerve
What artery supplies the anterior compartment of the arm? The brachial artery
What is the innervation and action of the biceps brachii? Musculocutaenous; flexes and supinates forearm (most powerful supinator)
What is the innervation and action of the brachialis? musculocutaneous; chief flexor of the forearm
What is the innervation and action of the coracobrachialis? Musculocutaneous; flexes and adducts the humerus
What are the muscles of the posterior compartment of the arm? Triceps brachii, anconeus
What nerve supplies the posterior compartment of the arm? The radial nerve
What artery supplies the posterior compartment of the arm? The profunda brachii and the ulnar collateral arteries
What is the innervation and action of the triceps brachii? Nerve: radial nerve; Action: CHIEF EXTENSOR of the arm
What is the innervation and action of the anconeus? Nerve: Radial; Action: Extensions of the forearm
Describe the path of the brachial artery Continuation of the axillary artery at the LOWER BORDER OF THE TERES MAJOR MUSCLE. Superficial throughout course, running along MEDIAL side of biceps with MEDIAN NERVE; divides in cubital fossa into radial + ulnar art's.
What are the major branches of the brachial artery? Profunda brachii (largest), superior ulnar collateral, inferior ulnar collateral
Where does the profunda brachii run? Runs with RADIAL NERVE in the RADIAL GROOVE
What are the terminal branches of the profunda brachii? Where do they anastomose? Radial collateral (anastomoses with radial recurrent artery in front of lateral), Middle collateral (anastomoses with interossus recurrent artery in back of lateral epycondyle)
Where is the superior ulnar collateral? Arises in mid arm from brachial artery; accompanies ULNAR NERVE behind medial epicondyle and anastomoses with posterior ulnar recurrent artery
Where is the inferior ulnar collateral? Arises ~5 cm. above elbow; anastomoses with anterior ulnar recurrent in front of the medial epicondyle
The radial collateral artery anastomoses with the ____ ___ artery in front of the ___ epicondyle. radial recurrent; lateral
Where does the median nerve lie? Runs with the brachial artery; no branches in the arm
Where does the musculocutaneous nerve lie? Pierces coracobrachialis muscle; runs in the plane between biceps and brachialis; emerges at the elbow lateral to the biceps tendon at the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve
Where does the ulnar nerve lie? Passes behind the medial epicondyle of the humerus with the superior ulnar collateral artery; no branches in the arm
Where does the radial nerve lie? Joins profunda brachii in the radial groove between medial and lateral head of the triceps; pierces the lateral intermuscular septum-->enters anterior compartment and continues between brachialis and brachioradialis muscles
What are the two branches of the radial nerve? The superficial (sensory) and deep branches (motor)
What are the boundaries of the cubital fossa? (lateral, medial, floor, and roof) Brachioradialis muscle; pronator teres muscle; supinator and brachialis; bicipital aponeurosis
What are the contents of the cubital fossa medial to lateral? Median nerve; brachial artery and terminal branches; biceps tendons; radial nerve and terminal branches
What is the antebrachial fascia? Deep fascia of the forearm, which is continuous above with the brachial fascia
* * What is the interosseous membrane? Thin but strong membrane uniting the radius and ulna; fibers run obliquely down and medially so that a force applied to lower end of radius is transmitted upwards; serves as attachment site for many muscles
How is forced transmitted along interossus membrane? Radius-->ulna-->humerus-->scapula
What is the flexor retinaculum? Thickening of deep fascia that holds long flexor tendons in position at the wrist; converts concave anterior surface of the hand into an osteofibrous tunnel (Carpal tunnel) for passage of the median nerve and the long flexor tendons
What is the flexor retinaculum attached to? Medially to the pisoform bone and hook of hamate and laterally to the scaphoid and trapezium bones; proximal border of the flexor retinaculum corresponds to the distal transverse skin crease in front of skin
What is the extensor retinaculum? Thickening of the deep fascia across the back of the wrist; holds the long extensor tendons in position; attached medially to the pisiform bone and hook of hamate and laterally to the distal end of the radius
What is the blood supply to the anterior (flexor) compartment of the forearm? The nerve supply? Blood: ulnar and radial arteries; Nerve: all muscles are innervated by the MEDIAN NERVE except the FLEXOR CARPI ULNARIS and MEDIAL 1/2 of FLEXOR DIGITORUM PROFUNDIS (ulnar nerve)
What are the superficial muscles of the anterior compartment? Pronator teres; flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, and flexor carpi ulnaris
What are the intermediate muscles of the anterior compartment? Flexor digitorum superficialis
What are the deep muscles of the anterior compartment? Flexor pollicus longus; flexor digitorum profundus, and the pronator quadratus
Nerve supply and action of the pronator teres Median nerve; pronation and flexion of the forearm
Nerve supply and action flexor carpi radialis Median nerve; flexes and abducts the wrist joint (inserts into bases of the second and third metacarpal)
Nerve supply and action palmaris longus Median nerve; flexes wrist (inserts into the flexor retinaculum and palmar aponeurosis)
Nerve supply and action flexor carpi ulnaris ULNAR NERVE; flexes and adducts the wrist (inserts into pisiform, hook of hamate, and base of fifth metacarpal)
Nerve supply and action of the flexor digitorum superficialis Median nerve; flexes fingers, knuckles, and wrists
Nerve supply and action of the flexor pollicus longus Anterior interosseous branch of the median nerve; flexes thumb
* * Nerve supply and action of flexor digitorum profundus Ulnar and median nerves (anterior interossesous branch); flexes the fingers, knuckles, and wrist (THE ONLY MUSCLE WHICH FLEXES THE DISTAL PHALANGES OF THE MEDIAL FOUR FINGERS)
Nerve supply and action of the pronator quadratus Anterior interosseous branch of median nerve; pronates the forearm
With what structures does the ulnar artery run with as it descends into the forearm? Descends deep to the pronator teres and runs through the forearm with the ulnar nerve; emerges at the wrist with the ulnar nerve lateral to the pisiform bone and superficial to the flexor retinaculum
What are the important branches of the ulnar artery in the forearm? The anterior ulnar recurrent, the posterior ulnar recurrent, and the common interosseous artery
Describe the path of the radial artery Runs along the lateral forearm under the cover of the brachioradialis muscle; approaches the wrist between the radius and the flexor carpi radialis muscle
What are the important branches of the radial artery in the forearm? Radial recurrent, superficial palmar branch
What artery do you typically use to get a pulse on the wrist? The superficial palmar branch of the radial artery
What is the superficial palmar arch? It is a joining of the superficial palmar branch and the ulnar arteries
This nerve appears in the cubital fossa medial to the brachial artery and then passes between two heads of the pronator teres muscle Median nerve
Describe the course of the median nerve Cubital fossa (medial to the brachial artery); between two heads of pronator teres; courses in plane between flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor digitorum profundus; enters palm of the hand deep to the flexor retinaculum
Describe how the median nerve enters the wrist Enters the palm of the hand DEEP to the flexor retinaculum
Describe the course of the ulnar nerve enters the front of the forearm passing between the two heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris; runs down forearm between flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor digitorum profundus muscles; enters palm SUPERFICIAL to flexor retinaculum and lateral to pisiform bone
Created by: karkis77