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The Oral Cavity

Anatomy of the Oral Cavity

QuestionAnswer
What is the space between the lips and the anterior surface of the teeth? Inside the teeth? The vestibule; the oral cavity proper
What is the tissue of the oral cavity like? The oral cavity is lined by mucous membrane with non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium (except gums and hard palates, which ARE keratinized)
The oral cavity proper communicates posteriorly with the ____ via the ____ ____, which passes between the ____ arches and the tongue. oropharynx; oropharyngeal isthmus; palatoglossal
Upper and lower frenula connect upper and lower lip to the alveolar process
Lingual frenulum midline fold connecting tongue to floor of mouth
Sublingual caruncle (papilla) openings to the submandibular ducts into floor of mouth OPPOSITE of lingual frenulum
sublingual folds formed by sublingual glands running inthe direction of the sublingual caruncle (papilla); small ducts of the sublingual glands open along the folds
* Deep lingual veins on either side of the lingual frenulum
* * Parotid papilla Opening of the parotid duct (stenson's duct) into vestibule opposite the second upper molar tooth
What is the sulcus terminalis? Inverted V-shaped groove separating the anterior 2/3 fromt he posterior 1/3 of tongue
What is the foramen cecum? Located in the junction of the two limbs of the sulcus terminalis (site of embryonic thyroglossal duct)
What are the lingual papillae? Where are they? Upfoldings of mucus membrane covering the dorsal surface of the anterior 2/3 of tongue
What are the four types of papillae on the tongue? Filiform, fungiform, foliate, circumvallate
* Filiform papillae conical shaped projections arranged in rows which diverge from midline, run parallel to sulcus terminalis; lack taste buds
* Fungiform papillae Scattered throughout filiform pap.; more common along tip of tongue; appear as red dots due to rich blood supply; Apex large and rounded, base narrower; taste buds along surface (CN VII) (cordae tympani)
* Foliate papillae Lateral upfoldings of the tongue; poorly developed in humans; taste buds along lateral surfaces (CN VII)
* Circumvallate papillae About 12 or so arranged in a row in front of sulcus terminalis; much larger than fungiform or foliates; numerous taste buds along sides (CN IX)
Where are the lingual tonsils? On the posterior one third of the tongue
Median and lateral glossoepiglottic folds reflections of mucosa onto the epiglottis
Valleculae Depressions between the glossoepiglottic folds, contain some taste buds (CN X)
What does the Lingual Nerve (CN V3) innervate? General sensation for the anterior 2/3 of tongue
What does the Chorda tymapani of CN VII innervate? Taste for anterior 2/3 of tongue
What does the lingual branch (CN IX) innervate? General sensation and taste for posterior 1/3 of tongue
What does the internal laryngeal nerve (CN X) innervate? General sensation and taste in the valleculae of the tongue AND palatoglussus (motor)
What does the hypoglossal nerve innervate? (CN XII) Motor to all muscles of the tongue (except palatoglossus--CN X)
Where does the lingual artery arise from? The external carotid artery just behind the greater horn of the hyoid bone
What do the deep lingual and sublingual veins form? The vena comitans nervi hypoglossi, which is joined by the dorsal lingual vein to form the lingual vein, which opens into the jugular foramen
What are the intrinsic muscles of the tongue attached to? What about the extrinsic muscles of the tongue? Located entirely within the tongue-->no bony attachments; arise from bony attachments outside of tongue
& * Name the nerve and action of the genioglossus Hypoglossal nerve; pulls tongue forward and potrudes it; assists in creating a central furrow during swallowing, anterior fibers retract the protruded tip of the tongue
* * Name the nerve and action of the hyoglossus Hypoglossal nerve; depresses the tongue
* * Name the nerve and action of the styloglossus Hypoglossal nerve; pulls tongue upward and backward, assists in creating a central furrow during swallowing
* * Name the nerve and action of the palatoglossus Vagus nerve (via pharyngeal plexus); depresses palate, moves palatoglossal arch toward midline, elevates back of tongue
What is the nerve and action of the digastric muscle? N: anterior belly is CNV3, posterior belly is CNVII; elevates hyoid or depresses mandible
What is the nerve and action of the mylohyoid? CN V3; raises the hyoid and the tongue (swallowing) or depresses the mandible (forms anatomical floor of the mouth)
What is the nerve and action of the geniohyoid? C1 via the hypoglossal nerve; raises the hyoid or depresses the mandible
What is the nerve and action of the stylohyoid? CN VII; raises the hyoid and pulls it anteriorly
where is the submandibular gland (what muscle is it next to)? Large U-shaped gland, wraps around posterior free border of the mylohyoid muscle; has superficial and deep parts which are continuous over the posterior border of the mylohyoid
* * Where is the superficial part of the submandibular gland? Wedged between the body of the mandible and the mylohyoid muscle; laterally, related to the submandibular fossa
* * Where is the deep part of the submandibular gland? Lies in the space between the mylohyoid muscle (lateral) and the styloglossus and hyoglossus (medial)
* * Where does the submandibular duct run? Emerges from the medial side of the deep part of the submandibular g.; it is crossed LATERALLY by the LINGUAL NERVE, runs anteriorly between the sublingual gland and the genioglossus muscle; enters floor at sublingual caruncle (next to lingual frenulum)
* * Where are the sublingual glands? They are the most superificial structures in the floor of the mouth; almond shaped, which forms the sublingual folds
* * What lies superior, inferior, lateral, and medial to the sublingual glands? Sup: mucous membrane; inf: mylohyoid; lateral: sublingual fossa of the mandible; medial: submandibular duct, lingual nerve, genioglossus
Where does the lingual nerve arise from? From CN V3 in the infratemporal fossa; joined by the chorda tympani from the facial nerve (CN VII)
* * * Where does the lingual nerve pass through? closely related to the THIRD MOLAR TOOTH and can be damaged during extraction; passes forward across the styloglossus and hyoglossus; crosses LATERAL side of submandibular duct, winds below it, and runs upward on its MEDIAL SIDE
* * What nerve and artery are DEEP to the hyoglossus muscle? Lingual artery and glossopharyngeal nerve
* * What structures run superficial (anterior to the muscle?) Superior level (lateral to medial or supperficial to deep): sublingual gland, submandibular duct, lingual nerve); Inferior level: hypoglossal nerve, vena comitantes nervi hypoglossi
Created by: karkis77