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Nervous system 10kat

nerves, brain and spinal cord

acetylcholine neurotransmitter, chemical released at the end of nerve cells
afferent nerve carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord(sensory nerve)
arachnoid membrane middle layer of the three membranes(meninges)
astrocyte type of glial(neuroglial) cell
autonomic nervous system nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands and internal organs
axon microscopic fiber that carries nervous impulse along a nerve cell
blood-brain barrier capillaries that selectively let certain substances enter and keep other substances out
brainstem conncets the cerebrum with the pons and medulla oblongata
cauda equina collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
cell body part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus
Central nervous system (CNS) brain and the spinal cord
cerebellum posterior part of the brain
cerebral cortex outer region of the cerebrum
cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) circulates through out the brain and spinal cord
cerebrum largest part of the brain
cranial nerves 12 pairs of nerves that carries messages to and from the brain, except the vagus nerve (10th nerve)
dendrite microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell, first part to recieve the nervous impulse
dura mater thick outermost layer of the meninges
efferent nerve carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerve
ependymal cell lines mebranes within the brain and spinal cord
ganglion collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nevous system
glial cell (neuroglial cell) supportive and connective nerve cell that does not carry nervous impulses
gyrus sheet of convoluted nerve cells
hypothalamus portion of the brain beneath the thalamus, controls sleep, appetite body temp and secretions of pituitary gland
medulla oblongata part of the brain just above the spinal cord, controls breathing, heartbeat and the size of blood vessels, nerve fibres cross over here
meninges three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
microglial cell phagocytic cell that removes waste products from the central nevous system
motor nerve carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs, efferent nerve
myelin sheath covering of white fatty tissue
nerve macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers that carry electrical impulses
neuron nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body
neurotransmitter chemical released at the end of a nerve cell
oligodendroglial cell glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons
parasympathetic nerves involuntary autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions like heart rate breathing and muscles of the gastrointestinal tract
parenchyma essential distinguishing tissue of an organ or system
peripheral nervous system nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial,spinal and autonomic nerves
pia mater thin delicate membrane of the meninges
plexus large interlacing network of nerves
pons bridge connecting various parts of the brain
receptor organ that recieves a nervous stimulus
sciatic nerve nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg and foot
sensory nerve carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from a receptor afferent nerve
spinal nerves 31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal nerve
stimulus agent of change(light sound touch) in the internal or external environment that evokes a response
stroma connective and supporting tissue of an organ. glia cells are the stromal tissue of the brain
sulcus depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure
sympathetic nerves autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress
synapse space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle of or glandular cells
thalamus main relay center of the brain
vagus nerve thenth cranial nerve (cranial nerve X)
ventricles of the brain canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid
cerebell/o cerebellum
cerebellar pt to cerebellum
cerebr/o cerebrum
cerebrospinal fluid fluid pt to the cerebrum
dur/o dura mater
subdural hematoma collection of blood pt to below the dura mater
epidural hematoma collection of blood pt to above the dura mater
encephal/o brain
encephalitis inflammation of the brain
encephalopathy disease condition of the brain
anencephaly condition of no brian
gli/o glial cells
glioblastoma immature malignant tumor of glial cells
lept/o thin slender
leptomeningeal pt to thin meninges
mening/o, meningi/o membranes, meninges
meningeal pt to the meninges
meningioma tumor of the meninges
myelomeningocele hernia of the spinal cord and meninges
my/o muscle
myoneural pt to muscle nerves
myel/o spinal cord (means bone marrow in other contexs)
myelogram record of the spinal cord
poliomyelitis inflammation of gray matter of the spinal cord
neur/o nerve
neuropathy disease condition of nerves
polyneuritis inflammation of many nerves
pont/o pons
cerebellopontine pt to cerebellum and pons
ine pt to
radicul/o nerve root(of spinal nerves)
radiculopathy disease condition of a nerve root
radiculitis inflammation of nerve root
thalam/o thalamus
thalamic pt to thalamus
thec/o sheath(refers to the meniges)
intra thecal injection injection pt to within the sheath
vag/o pt to vagus nerve
alges/o, algesia excessive sensitivity to pain
analgesia condition of no sensitivity to pain
hypalgesia diminished sensitivity to pain
-algia pain
neuralgia nerve pain
cephalgia head pain
caus/o burning
causalgia burning pain
comat/o deep sleep(coma)
comatose pt to deep sleep
coma state of deep sleep
-esthesia, esthesi/o feeling nervous sensation
anesthesia no feeling or nervous sensation
anesthetics agents that reduceor eliminate sensation
hyperesthesia increased feeling , sensation
paresthesia abnormal feeling sensation
kines/o,kinesi/o, -kinesia. -kinesis, -kinetic movement
bradykinesia slow movement
hyperkenesis excessive movement
dyskinesia difficult movement
akinetic no movement
-lepsy seizure
epilepsy above seizure
narcolepsy sleep seizure
lex/o word phrase
dyslexia condition of difficult word phrase
-paresis weakness
hemiparesis right or left half of the body weakness
-phasia speech
aphasia no speech
-plegia paralysis
hemiplegia right or left half of the body paralysis
paraplegia paralysis of the lower part of the body
quadriplegia paralysis of four exrtemities
-praxia action
apraxia no action
-sthenia strength
neurasthenia no nerve stength
syncop/o to cut off cut short
syncopal pt to cut off, cut short, fainting
tax/o order, coordination
ataxia condition of no order coordination
hydroephalus abnormal accumualtion of fluid(CSF) in the brain , circulation of spinal fluid is impared so a shunt is used to drain extra fluid
spina bifida congenital defects in the lumbar spinal column caused by union of vertabral parts(neural tube defect),meningocele,myelomeningocele, reasons unknown
Alzheimer disease (AD) brain disorder marked by gradual and progressive mental deterioration(dementia), personality changes, and impairment of daily functioning, confusion, memory failure, disorientation, restlessness, anxiety,senile, plaques, neurofibrillary tangles
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the spinal cord and the brain stem,maifests in adulthood,weakness, difficulty in swallowing, walking,cure unknown, Lou Ghrig disease
epilepsy chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizure activity
tonic-clonic seizure grand mal or ictal evenets
aura peculiar sensation experienced by the affected person before onset of seizure
absence seizures petite mal siezures, minor form of seizure,
Huntington disease hereditary disorder marked by degenerative changes in the cerebrum leading to abrupt involuntary movements and mental deterioration, dance like movements jerking movements,chromosome 4
multiple sclerosis(MS) destructiom of the myelin sheath on neurons in the CNS and its replacement by plaques of sclerotic(hard)tissue
myasthenia gravis (MG) autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles, thymectomy is a method of treatment
palsy paralysis (partial or complete loss of motor function) cerebral palsy partial paralysis and lack of muscular coordination from lack of oxygen during pregnancy
Bells palsy paralysis on one side of the face, from viral infection
parkinson disease degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia, occuring later in life and leading to tremors weakness of muscles and slowness of movement, pallitave care
Tourette syndrome involuntary, spasmodic twitching movements;uncontrollable vocal sounds and inappropriate words
herpes zoster viral infection affecting peripheral nerves,shingles
meningitis inflammation of the meninges,leptomeningitis viral,bacterial
human immunodeficiently virus encephalopathy (HIV) brain disease and dementia occuring with aids
brain tumor abnormal growth of brain tissue and meninges, gliomas, astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma,glioblastoma multiforme
cerebral concussion temporary brain dysfunction (brief loss of consciousness) after injury usually clearing in 24 hoursn (feinting)
cerebral contusion bruising of brain tissue as a result of direct trauma to the head, neurologic deficits persit longer than 24 hours, fracture of the skull
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) disruption in the normal blood supply to the brain, stroke, also known as cerebral infarction
Thrombotic blood clot, stroke
TIA transient ischemic attacks, short episodes of neurologic dysfunction
embolic an embolus a dislodged thrombus, travels to the cerebral arteries and occludes a small vessel, happens quite suddenly
hemorthagic a blood vessel such as the cerebral artery breaks and bleeding occurs, this stroke can be fatal can result from age,artherosclerosis,high blood pressure,
aneurism weakened area in a vessel that balloons and and may eventually bursdt(younger patient0
tPA tissue plasminogen activator, medicine started within three hours of stroke
migraine severe recurring unilateral, vascular headache
aura peculiar sensations that preceed the onset of illness
absence seizure minor petite mal form of seizure
astrocytoma malignant tumor of astrocyte (glial brain cells)
dopamine CNS neurotransmitter, deficient in patients with Parkinsons
gait manner of walking
occlusion blockage
palliative releiving symptoms but not curing them
thymectomy removal of the thymus gland, used in treatment of myasthenia gravis
tic involuntary movement of a small group of muscles, as of face, (tourette)
cerebrospinal fluid analysis samples of CSF are examined
cerebral angiography xray imaging of the arterial blood vessel in the brain after injection of contrast material(in thigh)
computed tomography of the brain (CT) xray technique that generates computerized multiple imshes of the brain and spinal cord
myelography xray imaging of the spinal canal after injection of contrast medium into the subarachnoid space
magnetic resonance imaging MRI magnetic field and pulse of radiowave energy create images of the brain and spinal cord
positron emission tomography scan (PET) radioactive glucose is injected and then detected in the brain to image the metabolic actyivity of cells, info about brain cells
doppler ultrasound studies sound waves detect blood flow in the cartoid and intracranial arteries
electroencephalography EEG recording of the electrical activity of the brain
lumbar puncture LP CSF is withdtrawn from between two lumbar vertabrae for analysis
steiotactic radiosurgery use of a specialized instrument to locate and treat targets in the brain, inaccessible brain tumors and abnormal blood vessels
Created by: katwhitworth



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