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Nasal Cavities

The anatomy of the nasal cavities

What is the vestibule of the nasal cavities? The slightly expanded anterior part of the nose just posterior to the nares and anterior to the limen nasi
What is the limen nasi? It is a line that marks the transition from stratified squamous epithelium to respiratory epithelim of the respiratory region
What separates the nasal cavity from the: oral cavity; cranial cavity; each other? The hard palate; frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones; nasal septum
What is the the repiratory region? Most of the nasal cavity is lined with respiratory epithelium (except the roof, which is olfactory epithelium); covers conchae, meatus, and floor
The underlying lamina propia contains which types of cells? Numerous seromucous glands
The mucous membranes of the nasal cavities are continuous with what other mucous membranes around the skull? nasopharynx, paranasal air sinuses, and conjunctiva of the eye (via nasolacrimal duct and lacrimal canaliculi)
What is the cavernous plexus? Where is it located? The complex of conchae in the respiratory region of the nasal cavity that is very thick and vascularized
What is the purpose of the mucous secretions of the respiratory region? To warm and humidify the air entering
In which direction is the mucus actively moved? What moves it? Moved continually towards the nasopharynx by ciliary action; palatal movements transfer mucus and entrapped particles to the oropharynx for swallowing
What two factors contribute to a stuffed up nose? Swollen vascularized tissue in the cavernous plexus of the nasal cavity as well as increased mucous production
What is the olfactory region lined with? Highly specialized epithelium containing the peripheral receptors for olfactory sensation
What parts of the nose comprise the olfactory region? Dorsal part of nasal cavity (including upper posterior parts of lateral dorsal wall, back of superior nasal concha, sphenoethmoidal recess, upper part of nasal septum, and roof of the nose)
What three structures distinguish the lateral walls of the nasal cavities? Nasal conchae, meatuses, and sphenoethmoidal recess
What are the nasal conchae? Three shelf like projections of the lateral wall (superior, middle, inferior)
What bones contribute to the nasal conchae? The superior and middle conchae are parts of the ethmoid bone; inferior concha is a separate bone
What are the meatuses of the nasal cavity? Spaces beneath the conchae (superior, middle, and inferior meatuses)
What is the sphenoethmoidal recess? The space ABOVE the superior nasal conchae
What is the Ethmoid bulla? Rounded elevation of the ethmoid bone below and behind the middle cranial concha; contains the middle ethmoid air cells
* * What is the Semilunar hiatus? Semicircular groove below the ethmoidal bulla; formed by the mucosa as it spans a defect in the wall between ethmoid bulla and uncinate process below
What is the infundibulum of the nasal cavity? Funnel shaped anterior end of the hiatus semilunaris; curves up and continues as the frontonasal duct through anterior end of ethmoidal labyrinth to open into frontal sinus
How do the fibers of the olfactory nerve reach the cranial nerve? Through the perforations in the cribiform plate
Where is the foramen cecum? Why is it significant? It is an opening between the nasal cavities and the cranial cavity; sometimes, a nasal vein and the superior sagital sinus connect though it (part of danger triangle of the face-->nose infection = meningitis)
Where is the sphenopalatine foramen? Why is it significant (i.e. what passes through it?) Superior to the attachment of posterior end of middle nasal concha; sphenopalatine artery (from maxillary artery), nasopalatine nerve (from V2), and upper posterior nasal nerves (from V2)
Where is the incisive canal? What passes through it? Lies immediately lateral to the nasal septum and opens into the incisive fossa in the roof of the oral cavity; nasopalatine nerve and greater palatine artery (terminal branch)
* What is the largest vessel supplying the nasal cavity? The sphenopalatine artery
What is the sphenopalatine artery a branch of? It is a terminal branch of the maxillary artery
Where does the sphenopalatine artery enter from? Enters through the sphenopalatine foramen
Where do the posterior lateral nasal branches of the sphenopalatine artery anastomose? Branches of the anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries and lateral nasal branches of the facial artery; posterior septal branches anastomose with the terminal end of the greater palatine artery and septal branches of the superior labial artery
What artery supplies the anterior medial wall and adjacnet floor of the nasal cavity? The greater palatine artery
What structure does the greater palatine cross through to enter the nasal cavity? Terminal end enters incisive fossa and anastomoses with septal branch of the sphenopalatine artery
From what artery do the superior labial and lateral nasal arteries branch off from? The facial artery
What do the septal and alar branches of the superior labial and lateral nasal arteris supply? Vestibule of the nose
Where does the greater palatine artery enter the oral cavity? The greater palatine foramen
Where do the anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries originate from? From the orbit (from the opthalmic artery)
How do the anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries enter the cranial cavity? Immediately lateral and superior to the cribiform plate of the ethmoid
What portions of the nasal cavity does the posterior ethmoidal artery supply? The upper parts of the medial and lateral walls
What does the anterior ethmoidal artery supply? Septal and lateral walls of the anterior nasal cavity
What nerve does the anterior ethmoidal artery pass forward with? The anterior ethmoidal nerve
What nerve provides the sense of smell for the nasal cavity? The olfactory nerve
What nerve(s) provide the general sensation of the nasal cavity? Branches of the opthalmic (V1) and Maxillary nerves (V2)
What two branches does the opthalmic nerve (V1) provide for innervating the nasal cavity? The anterior and posterior ethmoidal nerves
Where does the anterior ethmoidal nerve enter the nasal cavity? Via the ethmoidal nerve
What nerve supplies the anterior ethmoidal air cells? The anterior ethmoidal nerve
* Drescribe the course of the anterior ethmoidal nerve Anterior ethmoidal foramen-->cranial cavity-->nasal slit-->nasal cavity-->leaves nasal cavity as EXTERNAL NASAL BRANCH
Name the areas supplied by the anterior ethmoidal nerve Middle and anterior ethmoidal air cells; meninges; nasal septum and lateral walls; skin of the lower half of the nose
Where does the posterior ethmoidal nerve enter the nasal cavity? IT DOESN'T (trick question); it enters the posterior ethmoidal foramen and sends sensory fibers to the sphenoidal air sinuses and the posterior ethmoidal air cells
What are the four branches of the maxillary nerve that supply the nasal wall? Upper posterior nasal branches, nasopalatine nerve, lower posterior nasal nerves, branch from the anterior superior alveolar branch of the infraorbital nerve
Describe the path of the upper posterior nasal branches Enter the nasal cavity via the sphenopalatine foramen-->supply the posterior portions of the lateral walls and nasal septum
What structures does the upper posterior nasal nerve from the maxillary nerve supply? The posterior portions of the lateral walls and nasal septum
Where does the nasopalatine nerve arise from? Where does it end? From the maxillary (V2) nerve; exits from the sphenopalatine foramen to enter nasal cavity; stays mostly posterior and sends branches anteriorly along SEPTUM (not wall), ending behind the incisors
Where do the lower posterior nasal nerves originate from? From the greater palatine nerve as it descends in the greater palatine canal; pass through small bony foramina to enter the nasal cavity and supply the lower posterior parts of the lateral walls
What does the branch of the anterior superior alveolar branch of the infraorbital nerve supply? Lateral wall near the anterior end of the inferior nasal concha
Where are the following paranasal sinuses relative to the orbit: frontal, maxillary, ethmoid air cells, spheoidal sinuses Frontal: superior; maxillary: inferior to the orbit; ethmoidal air cells: medial to the orbit; sphenoidal sinuses: posterior to the orbit
What is the nerve and blood supply of the frontal sinus? Nerve: supraorbital nerve; blood: anterior ethmoidal artery
Dental infections from the upper molars may spread to what paranasal sinus? The maxillary sinuses
Where is the only opening of the maxillary sinus? How can you drain it best? The opening to the middle nasal meatus; best drained by lying on opposite side (can't drain when standing up erect)
What is the nerve and blood supply of the frontal sinus? Superior alveolar and infraorbital nerve; superior alveolar and infraorbital arteries
What is the ethmoidal labyrinth? A complex between the anterior, middle, and posterior ethmoidal air cells
* Why are infections of the ethmoidal air cells so serious? They can break through the fragile wall separating them from the orbit and cause damage to the optic nerve-->blindness
Where will an infection in the maxillary sinus spill over into? The middle nasal meatus of the nose (via the oppening into the middle nasal meatus)
What is the nerve supply to the ethmoidal air cells? Blood supply? Anterior and posterior ethmoidal nerves, orbital branches of the maxillary nerve. Blood: anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries
* Where does the maxillary sinus drain? Middle meatus (hiatus semilunaris)
* Where does the frontal sinus drain? Middle meatus (infundibulum via the frontonasal duct)
* Where do the ethmoidal air cells drain? Anterior cells: Middle meatus (infundibulum); middle cells: middle meatus (top of ethmoidal bulla); posterior cells: superior meatus
* Where do the sphenoid sinuses drain? Sphenoethmoidal recess
Where does the nasolacrimal duct drain? The inferior meatus
Created by: karkis77



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