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Venous sinus

The Meninges and Dural Venous sinuses

QuestionAnswer
What are the three tissue layers covering the brain (deep to superficial)? The pia mater, the arachnoid, and the dura mater
What two layers make up the dura mater of the skull? The endosteal layer (close to bone) and the meningeal layer (dura mater proper)
The endosteal layer of the dura mater DOES NOT extend through the ___ ___ to become continous with the dura mater of the spinal cord. It is continous with the periosteum outside of the ___. Foramen magnum; skull
Describe the meningeal layer of the dura mater proper Dense, strong, fibrous layer covering the brain
What other membrane is the meningeal layer of the dura mater continuous with outside of the skull? The dura mater of the spinal cord
The meningeal layer sends inward (how many?) dural foldings (septa) which separate the regions of the brain; what are they? (4): falx cerebri; tentorium cerebelli, falx cerebelli, and the diaphragma sellae
Sickle shaped fold of dura mater that lies at the midline separating the cerebral hemispheres falx cerebri
What are the attachments of the falx cerebri? Attached in median plane to inner surface of skull from frontal crest and crista galli anteriorly to the internal occiipital protuberance posteriorly. Inferiorly, blends at midline with tentorium cerebelli
Crescent shaped fold which separates the occipital lobes of the brain from the cerebellum Tentorium cerebelli
What is the gap on the anterior side of the tentorum cerebelli called? What is it for? tentorial notch; allows for passage of the midbrain
What are the attachments of the tentorium cerebelli? clinoid processes (of the sphenoid bone), the superior borders of the petrous temporal bones; and the margins of the grooves for the transverse sinuses of the occipital bones
What is attached to the superior surface of the tentorium cerebelli? The falx cerebri
Small, sickle shaped fold lying inferior to the tentorium cereblli Falx cerebelli
What does the falx cerebelli separate? The cerebellar hemispheres
Small circular fold of dura mater that forms the roof of the sella turcica Diaphragma sellae
What passes through the small opening in the center of the diaphragma sellae? Infundibular stalk of the hypophysis
* Dural venous sinuses: what are they? what layers are they between? where do they drain? Endothelium lined spaces between periosteal and meningeal layers of the dura mater; all blood from the brain eventually drain through them to the internal jugular veins
* What areas are drained by the dural venous sinuses? Brain, skull, orbid, and internal ear
Where is the superior sagital signus? Where does it begin? Attached to the upper border of the falx cerebri; begins anteriorly at foramen cecum and ends at the CONFLUENS OF THE SINUSES near the the internal occipital protuberance
* What sinuses meet at the confluense of the sinuses? superior sagital, straight, occipital, and transverse sinuses
What are the venous lacunae? "Lakes of blood" that communicate with superior sagital sinus
* What are arachnoid granulations? Collections of arachnoid villi; they potrude through the meningeal layer of the dura into the dural venous sinuses-->transfer CSF into the venous system
Where is the inferior sagital sinus? Occupies the free inferior margin of the falx cerebri
Where does the inferior sagittal sinus continue into? The straight sinus, after joining with the great cerebral vein of Galen
What does the great cerebral vein of galen do? Drain the deep structures of the brain
Where is the straight sinus located? Where does it go? Occupies the line of junction between the falx cerebri and the tentorium cerebelli; joins the confluens of the sinuses
Where are the transverse sinuses? Paired structures that begin at the internal occipital protuberance and course along the attached margins of the tentorium cerebelli
Where do the transverse sinuses drain? They drain at the confluens of the sinuses
Where are the sigmoid sinuses? Where do they drain? Direct communications of the TRANSVERSE SINUSES, forming s-shaped grooves in the temporal and the occipital bones; coninues in the jugular foramen as the INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN
Where are the cavernous sinuses? Situated on each side of the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
Where do the cavernous sinuses receive blood from? The superior and inferior opthalmic veins; sphenoparietal sinuses; and cerebral veins
The cavernous sinuses are drained by ... Superior and inferior petrosal sinuses; pterygoid venous plexus
What structures pass through the cavernous sinus? Pituatary gland (middle), CN III, IV, VI, and V1 and V2; and the internal carotid artery
The pia-arachnoid membrane and the pia mater develop from a single embryonic membrane know as the _____ leptomeninx
What is the arachnoid membrane? A delicate, impermeable membrane separated from the dura by a potential space, the subdural space and from the pia mater by the subarachnoid space
The subarachnoid space is filled with what fluid? Where does it come frome? Cerebrospinal fluid; choroid plexuses
What are the arachnoid villi? Projections of the arachnoid that protrude into the venous sinuses; aggregations of the arachnoid villi and granulations are most numerous along the superior sagittal sinus and lateral venous lacunae; sites where CSF can go back into venous circulation
Is the pia mater vascularized? Where is it? Yes; closely invests the brain
Describe the blood supply to the dura mater Arteries are small except for the middle meningeal artery; fibrous tissue doesn't really require that much blood (most of it goes to surrounding bone)
* What nerves innervate the dura mater of the anterior cranial fossa? Meningeal branches of the anterior ethmoidal nerve from the opthalmic nerve (CN V1) [floor and anterior parts of the falx cerebri]; tentorial branch of opthalmic nerve [tentorium cerebelli and posterior part of falx cerebri]
* What nerves supply the middle cranial fossa Meningeal branches of the maxillary nerve [V2]; supplied laterally by meningeal branch of mandibular nerve (CN V3) following distribution of middle meningeal artery
* What nerve supplies the posterior cranial fossa? How do they get there? Meningeal branches of the FIRST THREE CERVICAL NERVES; enter fossa through foramen magnum, jugular foramen [past vagus], and hypoglossal canal [past hypoglossal];
Do the meningeal nerve branches carry any sympathetics? Yes, all of them carry postganglionic sympathetics from the superior cervical ganglion
Of the following, which is enervated with sensory nerve endings: brain, pia mater, arachnoid, dura mater? Dura mater only; abundant along dural venous sinuses and middle meningeal artery; stimulation may cause referred pain to face
What is the clinical significance of the cavernous sinus? Important structures pass through it (see previous question); communicate ant. with facial vein via opthalmic veins and inferiorly with pterygoid venous plexus and posteriorly with basilar plexus (communicates with internal vertebral plexus); NO VALVES :(
Describe the clinical significance of an epidural hematoma injuries to the meningeal arteries (esp. middle meningeal)-->blood collects between periosteal layer of dura mater and skull-->intercranial pressure rises-->clot may exert pressure on motor area of cerebral cortex
Describe the clinical significance of a subdural hematoma Results from tearing of superior cerebral veins where they enter the superior sagital sinus; blood from torn veins acumulates in space between dura mater and arachnoid membrane
Describe the clinical significance of a subarachnoid hemorrhage Results from leakage of blood into subarachnoid space. Often results in leakage or rupture of congenital aneurysm on circle of Willis
Created by: karkis77