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LOM Book Chapter 22

Language of Medicine Chapter 22 - Created by

affect External expression of emotion; emotional response.
agoraphobia Fear of leaving home or leaving a safe place.
amnesia Loss of memory.
amphetamines Central nervous system stimulants.
anorexia nervosa Eating disorder of excessive dieting and refusal to maintain a normal body weight.
antisocial personality Characterized by lack of loyalty or concern for others and lack of moral standards.
anxiety disorders Characterized by unpleasant tensions, distress, and avoidance behavior; examples are phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic distress disorder.
anxiolytic Drug that relieves anxiety and produces a relaxing effect.
apathy Absence of emotions; lack of interest or emotional involvement.
Asperger syndrome A pervasive developmental disorder characterized by delays in socialization and communication skills; typically more mild than autism.
atypical antipsychotics Drugs used to treat schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and other serious mental illnesses (psychoses).
autism Severe lack of responsiveness to others, preoccupation with inner thoughts, withdrawal and retarded language development.
autistic thought Preoccupation with self-centered, illogical ideas and fantasies that exclude the external world.
benzodiazepines Drugs used to treat anxiety and panic attacks.
bipolar disorder Mood disorder with alternating periods of mania and depression.
borderline personality Instability in interpersonal relationships and sense of self; alternating involvement with and rejection of people.
bulimia nervosa Eating disorder marked by binge eating followed by vomiting, purging (defecation), and depression.
cannabis Active substance in marijuana; THC.
catatonia Immobility, muscular rigidity, and mutism induced by psychologic disorder such as schizophrenia.
claustrophobia Fear of closed-in places.
cognitive behavioral therapy Changing behavior patterns and responses by training and repetition and learning how thinking patterns caused symptoms, such as anger, anxiety, and depression.
compulsion Uncontrollable urge to perform an act repeatedly.
conversion disorder A physical symptom appears with no organic basis and as a result of anxiety and inner conflict.
cyclothymia Patient experiences alternating states of depression and exhilaration; mild form of bipolar disorder.
defense mechanism Unconscious technique (coping mechanism) that a person uses to resolve or conceal conflicts and anxiety.
delirium Confusion in thinking; faulty perceptions and irrational behavior.
delirium tremens Confusion in thinking, anxiety, tremors, and sweating occurring with withdrawal from excessive habitual use of alcohol.
delusion Fixed, false belief that cannot be changed by logical reasoning or evidence.
dementia Loss of higher mental functioning, including memory, judgment, and reasoning.
depression Major mood disorder marked by chronic and excessive sadness, loss of energy, hopelessness, worry, and discouragement.
dissociative disorder Chronic or sudden disturbance of memory, identity, or consciousness; examples are multiple-personality disorder and psychogenic amnesia.
dysphoria Sadness, hopelessness, and depressive mood; feeling “low”.
dysthymia Depressive episodes, but not of the same intensity or duration as major depression.
ego Central, coordinating branch of the personality.
electroconvulsive therapy Electric current produces a convulsive seizure to treat mood disorders (depression or the depressive phase of bipolar disorder); used in patients who are resistant to drug therapy or when rapid response is needed.
euphoria Exaggerated feeling of well-being; elevated mood, “high”.
exhibitionism Compulsive need to expose one’s body, particularly the genitals, to an unsuspecting stranger.
family therapy Treatment of an entire family to resolve and understand their conflicts and problems.
fetishism use of non-living objects, such as articles of clothing, as substitutes for a human sexual love object.
free association Psychoanalytic technique in which a patient is encouraged to reveal thoughts one after another without censorship.
fugue Flight from customary surroundings; dissociate disorder.
gender-identity disorder Strong and persistent cross-gender identification with the opposite sex.
group therapy Patients with similar problems gain insight into their personalities through discussion and interaction together.
hallucination False or unreal sensory perception; hearing voices and seeing things.
hallucinogen Substance that produces hallucinations.
histrionic personality Highly emotional, immature, and dependent personality type with irrational outbursts, tantrums and flamboyant, and theatrical behavior.
hypnosis Induction of a trance-like state to consciousness in a patient to increase the pace of psychotherapy.
hypochondriasis Exaggerated concern about one’s health.
hypomania Elevated excitement that is of lesser intensity than mania.
id Major unconscious part of the personality; instinctual drives and desires.
insight-oriented therapy Face to face discussion of life problems and feelings to increase understanding of thoughts and behavior patterns; psychodynamic therapy.
kleptomania Strong impulse to steal, often with little actual desire for stolen item.
labile Unstable; undergoing rapid emotional change.
lithium Drug used to treat the manic episodes in bipolar disorder.
mania State of excessive excitability, hyperactive elation and agitation.
mental Pertaining to the mind.
mood disorders Prolonged emotion dominates a person’s life; bipolar and depressive disorders.
mutism Non-reactive state; stupor.
narcissistic personality Characterized by grandiose sense of self-importance or preoccupation with fantasies of success or power; self-love empathy for others.
neuroleptic drug Antipsychotic drugs used to treat psychoses such as schizophrenia and severe depression.
neurosis Repressed conflicts lead to mental symptoms such as anxiety and fears that disturb ability to function; less serious mental disorder than a psychosis.
obsession An involuntary, persistent idea or emotion.
obsessive-compulsive disorder Anxiety disorder involving recurrent thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive actions (compulsions) that dominate a patient’s life.
opioid Drug derived from opium. Examples are cocaine, morphine, and heroin.
paranoia Overly suspicious system of thinking with fixed delusions that one is being harassed, persecuted, or unfairly treated.
paranoid personality Characterized by recurrent delusions of persecution and jealousy with suspicion and mistrust of other people; quick to take offense.
paraphilia Recurrent, intense sexual urge; fantasy or behavior that involves unusual objects, activities, and situations.
pedophilia Need for sexual gratification with a child.
personality disorder Established, lifelong pattern marked by inflexibility and impairment of social functioning.
phenothiazines Drugs used to treat serious mental illnesses or psychoses. They modify psychotic symptoms (delusions and hallucinations) and behavior.
phobia Irrational fear of an object or a situation; claustrophobia (closed spaces), agoraphobia (leaving home or a safe place), and acrophobia (heights) are examples.
play therapy A child, through play, uses toys to express conflicts and feelings that he or she is unable to communicate in a direct manner.
post-traumatic stress disorder Anxiety disorder that follows a traumatic incident; symptoms such as intense fear, helplessness, insomnia, nightmares, and less responsive to the external world.
projective (personality) test Diagnostic personality test using unstructured stimuli (inkblots, pictures, incomplete sentences) to evoke responses that reflect aspects of an individual’s personality.
psychiatrist Physician who treats the mind and mental disorders.
psychiatry Treatment of the mind and mental disorders.
psychoanalysis Form of psychotherapy in which the patient explores his or her unconscious emotions and past to understand and change current behavior and feelings.
psychodrama A group therapy in which a patient expresses feelings by acting out roles with other patients.
psychogenic Pertaining to produced within the mind, having emotional and psychologic origin, rather than a physical cause.
psychologist Individual (Ph.D or Ed.D) specializing mental processes and how the brain functions in health and disease; treats patients with psychotherapy, but cannot prescribe medication.
psychopharmacology Treatment of psychiatric disorders with medication (drugs).
psychosis Loss of contact with reality; often with delusions and hallucinations.
psychosomatic Pertaining to the inter-relationship of the mind (psych/o) and body (somat/o).
psychotherapy Treatment of the mind.
pyromania Strong impulse (obsessive urge) to set objects on fire.
reality testing Ability to perceive fact from fantasy.
repression Defense mechanism by which unacceptable thoughts, feelings, and impulses are automatically pushed into the unconscious.
schizoid personality Emotionally cold and aloof, as if split off from other people; indifferent to praise or criticism or to the feelings of others.
schizophrenia Psychosis marked by withdrawal from reality into an inner world of disorganized thinking and conflict.
sedatives Drug that lessen anxiety.
sexual disorders Conditions involving sexual use of nonhuman objects and acts involving suffering, humiliation, and non-consenting partners. Disorders also include sexual dysfunctions such as inhibition of sexual desire or changes in sexual responses.
sexual masochism Sexual gratification gained by being mutilated, beaten, or bound or otherwise made to suffer by another person.
sexual sadism Sexual gratification gained by inflicting physical or psychologic pain or harm on others.
somatoform disorders Conditions in which the patient has physical or bodily symptoms that cannot be explained by any actual physical illness.
substance-related disorders Regular overuse of psychoactive substances (alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, opioids, and sedatives), which can affect the central nervous system.
superego Internalized conscious and judgmental and moral part of the mind.
supportive psychotherapy Treatment that involves offering encouragement, support, and hope to patients facing difficult life transitions and events.
tolerance Development of insensitivity to a drug; increasing doses of a drug are needed to produce a desired effect.
transference Process by which a patient relates to a therapist as though the therapist was a prominent childhood figure.
transvestic fetishism Cross-dressing by a male in women’s attire.
tricyclic antidepressants Group of drugs used to treat severe depression.
voyeurism Abnormal desire to look at sexual organs or watch sexual acts.
xenophobia Fear of strangers.
Created by: mtathome
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