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LOM Book Chapter 21

Language of Medicine Chapter 21 - Created by

ACE inhibitor Drug that lowers blood pressure (antihypertensive).
addiction Physical and psychologic dependence on and craving for a drug.
additive action Combination of two similar drugs is equal to the sum of the effects of each.
aerosol Particles of drug suspended in air.
amphetamine Central nervous system stimulant.
analgesic Drug that relieves pain.
anaphylaxis Exaggerated hypersensitivity reaction to a previously encountered drug or to a foreign protein (antigen).
androgen Male hormone.
anesthesia Absence of nervous feeling or sensation.
anesthetic Drug that reduces or eliminates nervous sensation.
angiotensin II receptor antagonist Drug that lowers blood pressure by preventing angiotensin from acting on receptors in blood vessels.
antacid Drug that works against acid in the stomach.
antagonistic action Combination of two drugs gives less than the sum of the effects of each together.
antiandrogen Drug that slows the uptake of androgens or interferes with their effect in tissues.
antiarrhythmic Drug that treats abnormal heart rhythms.
antibiotic Chemical substance that has the ability to inhibit or destroy foreign organisms in the body.
anticoagulant Drug that prevents blood clotting.
anticonvulsant Drug that prevents convulsions and seizures.
antidepressant Drug that relieves symptoms of depression.
antidiabetic Drug given to prevent or treat diabetes mellitus.
antidiarrheal Drug that prevents diarrhea.
antidote Agent given to counteract an unwanted effect of a drug.
antiemetic Drug that prevents nausea and vomiting.
antihistamine Drug that blocks the action of histamine and helps prevent symptoms of allergy.
antinauseant Drug that relieves nausea and vomiting; antiemetic.
antiplatelet Drug that reduces the tendency of platelets to stick together and form a clot.
antipruritic Drug that acts against itching (pruritus).
antipyretic Drug that lowers fever.
antiulcer Drug that inhibits the secretion of acid by cells lining the stomach.
antiviral Drug that acts against viruses such as the herpes virus and HIV.
aromatase inhibitor Drug that reduces estrogen in the blood by blocking the enzyme, aromatase.
bactericidal Pertaining to killing bacteria.
bacteriostatic Pertaining to inhibiting bacterial growth.
beta-blocker Blocks the action of epinephrine (adrenaline) on the heart and blood vessels and thus lowers the blood pressure.
bisphosphonate Drug that prevents bone loss in osteoporosis and osteopenia.
brand name Commercial name for a drug; trade or trademark name.
bronchodilator Agent that dilates (widens) blood vessels and relieves bronchospasm.
caffeine Central nervous system stimulant.
calcium channel blocker Drug that stops entrance of calcium into muscle of the heart and blood vessels. This lowers blood pressure and restores normal heart rhythm.
cardiovascular Pertaining to the heart and blood vessels. Cardiovascular drugs act on the heart and blood vessels; ACE inhibitors, diuretics, beta-blockers, and statins.
cathartic Drug that relieves constipation.
chemical name Chemical formula for a drug.
chemotherapy Treatment with drugs.
contraindication Factor in a patient’s condition that prevents the use of a particular drug or treatment.
diuretic Drug that promotes or increases the production of urine (diuresis).
emetic Drug that promotes vomiting.
endocrine Pertaining to internal secretion. An endocrine drug is a hormone or hormone-like drug; androgens, estrogens, and glucocorticoids.
erythromycin Antibiotic that is extracted from a red (erythr/o) mold (-mycin).
estrogen Female hormone that promotes secondary sex characteristics and supports reproductive tissues.
gastrointestinal Pertaining to the stomach and intestinal.
generic name Legal, noncommercial name for a drug.
glucocorticoid Hormone from the adrenal cortex that raises blood sugar and reduces tissue inflammation.
hypnotic Drug that promotes sleep or a trance-like state (hypnosis).
hypodermic Pertaining to under the skin.
iatrogenic Pertaining to a condition that is produced (-genic) by a physician or treatment (iatr/o).
idiosyncrasy Unexpected effect produced in a particularly sensitive individual, but not seen in most patients.
inhalation Administration of drugs in gaseous or vapor form through the nose or mouth.
intrathecal Pertaining to within the meninges or membranes surrounding the spinal cord. Drugs may be administered intrathecally.
laxative Weak cathartic; promotes movement of feces through the colon.
medicinal chemistry Study of new drug synthesis and the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug and its biologic effect.
molecular pharmacology Study of the interaction of drugs and their target molecules, enzymes, or cell surface receptors.
narcotic Habit-forming drug that relieves pain by producing stupor and insensibility; morphine and opium.
oral administration Drugs that are given by mouth.
parenteral administration Drugs or nourishment are given intravenously (within a vein) and other than through the intestinal tract.
pharmacist Specialist in preparing and dispensing drug.
pharmacodynamics Study of the effects and strength of a drug within the body.
pharmacokinetics Calculation of drug concentration in tissues and body fluids over a period of time.
pharmacologist Specialist in the study of the properties, uses, and actions of drugs.
pharmacology Study of the properties, uses, and actions of drugs.
pharmacy Location for preparing and dispensing drugs; study of preparing and dispensing drugs.
progestin Hormone that stimulates the uterine lining during pregnancy and is used in treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding and hormone replacement therapy.
purgative Drug that relieves constipation and is a strong cathartic.
receptor Target substance with which a drug interacts in the body.
rectal administration Drugs are inserted through the anus into the rectum.
respiratory drug Treats asthma, emphysema, and infections that affect breathing; bronchodilators are respiratory drugs.
sedative Mild sleep inducing agent that relaxes a patient without necessarily producing sleep.
side effect Adverse effect that routinely results from the use of a drug.
stimulant Drug that excites and promotes activity.
subcutaneous Pertaining to under the skin.
sublingual Pertaining to under the tongue.
synergism Drug action in which the combination of two drugs causes an effect that is greater than the sum of the individual effects of each drug.
synergistic Pertaining to synergism.
syringe Instrument for introducing or withdrawing fluids from the body.
thyroid hormone Secretion from the thyroid gland that stimulates cellular metabolism.
tolerance Drug action in which larger and larger doses must be given to achieve a desired effect.
topical application Drugs are applied locally on the skin or mucous membranes of the body; ointments, lotions, and creams are examples.
toxicity Harmful effect of a drug.
toxicology Branch of pharmacology that studies harmful chemicals and their effects on the body.
tranquilizer Drug that controls anxiety and severe disturbances of behavior.
transport Movement of a drug across a cell membrane into body cells.
vasodilator Drug that widens blood vessels.
vitamin Substance found in foods and essential in small quantities for growth and good health.
Created by: mtathome
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