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endocrine system hw

endocrine system hw organs, hormones, histology

QuestionAnswer
hypothalamus nervous tissue. HORMONES: releasing, inhibiting, antidiuretic, oxytocin
releasing hormone stimulates anterior pituitary gland to RELEASE a hormone
inhibiting hormone stimulates anterior pituitary gland to STOP releasing a hormone
antidiuretic hormone ADH stimulates kidneys to reabsorb h2o and stimulates blood vessles to vasoconstrict -> increases blood pressure
oxytocin OT stimulates uterus to contract (labor), stimulates myoepithelial cells in breast to release milk, stimulates maternal behavior, stimulates prostate gland to release seminal fluid during sex
anterior pituitary gland HORMONES: Follicle stimulating, Luteinizing, Adrenocorticotropic, Thyroid stimulating, Prolactin, Growth Hormone. FLAT PG
FSH follicle stimulating stimulates testes for sperm production and maturation, stimulates ovaries for growth of ovarian follicles (protects egg), stimulates estrogen
luteinizing stimulates testes to secrete testosterone, stimulates ovaries to ovulate and secrete progesterone (pregnancy)
posterior pituitary gland posterior pituitary gland histology: myelinated axons from hypothalamus. RELEASES hormones (doesn't produce): oxytocin and ADH antidiuretic
adrenocorticotropic ACTH stimulates adrenal gland to release cortisol
thyroid stimulating TSH stimulates thyroid to release thyroid hormone (duh)
prolactin PRL stimulates mammary gland to produce milk and stimulates testes to be sensitive to LH (luteinizing h)
Growth H GH stimulates liver to produce insulin-> stimulates growth plate. stimulates protein synthesis and breakdown of fats.
thyroid gland Histology: follicular cells simp cuboidal, secrete thyroid h, colloid fluid in center has thyroid h, parafollicular cells secrete calcitonin. Hormones: Thyroid and Calcitonin
T3 T4 thyroid hormone increases metabolism neccessary for growth, stimulates GH, brain development
calcitonin CT Stimulates osteoblasts and inhibits osteoclasts which decreases blood calcium levels
parathyroid gland histology: principal cells produce PTH, oxyphil cells unknown function. HORMONE: parathyroid H
parathyroid hormone PTH stimulates osteoclasts INCREASES Ca levels, stimulates kidneys to reabsorb Ca, stimulates synthesis of Calcitrol (active form of vitamin D)
adrenal cortex 3 zonas: glomerulosa: bulb cells make mineralocorticoids. fasciculata: cords of lipid rich cells that make glucocorticoids. reticularis: branching cells make gonadocorticoids.
cortisol/cortisone/corticosterone: glucocorticoids cope w stress by stimulating production of glucose from fats. high levels can reduce swelling and inhibit immune system
aldosterone: mineralocorticoid regulates salt levels by stimulating kidneys to reabsorb Na if BP drops
androgens: gonadocorticoids stimulate protein synthesis in sex organ cells
adrenal medulla chromaffin cells that secrete NE and EPI
EPI epinephrine and NE norepinephrine stimulated by sympathetic division of ANS and have longer effects of increased: heart rate, breathing, glucose levels, pupil diameter
pancreas both exocrine and endocrine cells. pancreatic islets with simp cuboidal cells around that secrete digestive enzymes (exocrine). hormones: glucagon and insulin
glucagon increases blood glucose levels during fasting and starvation
insulin decreases blood glucose levels, stimulates body cells to take up glucose
Created by: loraeo