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LOM Book Chapter 18

Language of Medicine Chapter 18 - Created by MTatHome.com

QuestionAnswer
acromegaly Enlargement of extremities due to increased secretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland.
Addison disease Hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex; decreased secretion of aldosterone and cortisol.
adenectomy Removal of a gland.
adenohypophysis Anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
adrenal cortex Outer section of each adrenal gland.
adrenal medulla Inner section of each adrenal gland.
adrenal virilism Excessive secretion of adrenal androgens.
adrenalectomy Removal of an adrenal gland.
adrenaline Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; epinephrine.
adrenocorticotropic hormone Secretion from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the adrenal cortex; ACTH.
adrenocorticotropin Adrenocorticotropic hormone; ACTH.
adrenopathy Disease of the adrenal glands.
aldosterone Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates salt and water balance.
androgen Male hormone responsible for developing and maintaining male secondary sex characteristics.
antidiuretic hormone Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; promotes water reabsorption by the kidney.
calcitonin Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland; lowers calcium levels in the blood.
catecholamines Hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla; epinephrine (adrenaline) is an example.
corticosteroid Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; cortisol and aldosterone are samples.
cortisol Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates the use of sugars, fats, and proteins in cells. Cortisol raises blood sugar.
cretinism Hypothyroidism during infancy and childhood leading to a lack of normal physical and mental growth.
Cushing syndrome Group of symptoms produced by excess cortisol from the adrenal cortex; obesity, hyperglycemia, and excess fat deposition in the body.
diabetes insipidus Insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin); signs are polyuria and polydipsia.
diabetes mellitus Lack of insulin secretion (Type 1) or improper utilization of insulin by cells (Type 2) leading to a chronic disorder of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in cells.
dwarfism Congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland.
electrolyte Substance that, in solution, carries an electric charge; examples are sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca++) and chloride (CI-).
endemic goiter Enlargement of the thyroid gland due to lack of iodine in the diet.
endocrinologist Medical specialist in the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine gland disorders.
epinephrine Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure.
estradiol Estrogen secreted by the ovaries.
estrogen Female hormone secreted by the ovaries and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex in both males and females.
euthyroid Normal functioning of the thyroid gland.
exophthalmometry Measurement of an eyeball protrusion.
exophthalmos Protrusion of the eyeball (proptosis); symptom of hyperthyroidism.
fasting blood sugar The circulating glucose level is measured in a patient who has fasted for at least 4 hours. Fasting blood sugar is a test for diabetes mellitus.
follicle-stimulating hormone Secretion of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates ovarian follicles to produce egg cells.
gastroparesis Loss of motility of the stomach muscles, occurring as a long-term secondary complication of diabetes mellitus.
gigantism Hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of body tissues.
glucagon Hormone secreted by the pancreas (alpha islet cells); increases blood glucose (sugar) by conversion of glycogen to glucose.
glucocorticoid Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; cortisol is an example. It raises blood sugar.
glucose tolerance test Measures the glucose levels in a blood sample taken at various intervals from a patient who had previously ingested glucose.
glycemic Pertaining to blood sugar.
glycogen Animal starch; glycogen is broken down (glycogenolysis) to produce sugar (glucose).
glycosuria Sugar in urine.
goiter Enlargement of the thyroid gland.
gonadotropin Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and acting on the ovaries or testes.
Graves disease Hyperfunctioning of the thyroid gland; thyrotoxicosis. This is the most common type of hyperthyroidism.
growth hormone Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; somatotropin. It stimulates the growth of bones and soft tissues.
hirsutism Excessive hair growth.
homeostasis Tendency in an organism to return to a state of constancy and stability.
hormonal Pertaining to a hormone.
hormone Chemical secreted by an endocrine gland.
hypercalcemia High levels of calcium in the bloodstream; often due to hyperparathyroidism.
hypercalcemia High levels of calcium in urine.
hyperglycemia High levels of sugar in the blood.
hyperinsulinism Increased secretion of insulin from the beta islet cells of the pancreas.
hyperparathyroidism Increased secretion of parathormone from the parathyroid glands.
hyperthyroidism Secretion by thyroid gland of a greater than normal amount of thyroxine (thyroid hormone, or T4).
hypocalcemia Low levels of calcium in the blood.
hypoglycemia Low levels of sugar in the blood.
hypogonadism Deficient functioning of the gonads (ovaries or testes).
hypokalemia Low levels of potassium in the blood.
hyponatremia Low levels of sodium in the blood.
hypoparathyroidism Decreased secretion of parathormone from the parathyroid glands.
hypophysectomy Removal of the pituitary gland.
hypophysis Pituitary gland.
hypopituitarism Deficient secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland.
hypothalamus Region of the brain lying below the thalamus, but above the pituitary gland. It stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete and release hormones.
hypothyroidism Decreased secretion of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland.
insulin Hormone secreted by the beta islet cells of the pancreas. Insulin helps sugar leave the blood and enter the cells.
ketoacidosis High levels of acids (ketones) in the blood; occurring in diabetes mellitus (Type 1) when cells burn high levels of fats (producing ketones) because sugar is not available as fuel.
luteinizing hormone (LH) Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the ovaries to release eggs (ovulation) and produce hormones.
mineralocorticoid Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates salts (electrolytes) and water balance in the body. Aldosterone is an example.
myxedema Hypofunctioning of the thyroid gland in adults.
neurohypophysis Posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; secretes oxytocin and vasopressin.
nodular goiter Enlargement of the thyroid gland due to growth of nodules (adenomas) on the thyroid gland.
norepinephrine Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases blood pressure as a part of the fight or flight reaction. It is a sympathomimetic.
oxytocin Hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates contractions of the uterus during childbirth.
pancreas Endocrine (islet cells) and exocrine (enzyme producing cells) gland behind the stomach.
pancreatectomy Excision of the pancreas.
panhypopituitarism Deficiency of all pituitary gland hormones.
parathormone Secreted by the parathyroid glands; regulates calcium in the blood.
parathyroid glands Four small endocrine glands on the posterior side of the thyroid gland.
parathyroidectomy Removal of parathyroid glands.
pheochromocytoma Tumor of cells of the adrenal medulla; cells stain a dark (phe/o) or dusky color (chrom/o).
pineal gland Small endocrine gland in the center of the brain; secretes melatonin.
pituitary gland Endocrine gland at the base of the brain; anterior and posterior lobes secrete hormones.
polydipsia Excessive thirst.
progesterone Hormone secreted by the ovaries; prepares the uterus for pregnancy.
prolactin Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; promotes milk secretion.
radioactive iodine uptake Test to measure the amount of radioactive iodine taken up by the thyroid gland; indicator of thyroid gland function.
receptor Cellular or nuclear protein that binds to a hormone to elicit a response by the targeted tissue.
sella turcica Cavity in the base of the skull; contains the pituitary gland.
somatotropin Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; growth hormone.
steroid Complex substance related to fat (sterols; many hormones are steroids; estrogens, androgens, cortisol, and aldosterone).
sympathomimetic Pertaining to mimicking or copying the effect of the sympathetic nervous system; adrenaline and norepinephrine are sympathomimetic hormones.
syndrome of inappropriate ADH Excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin) leading to water retention.
target tissue Cells of an organ that are affected or stimulated by specific hormones.
testosterone Hormone secreted by the testes.
tetany Constant muscles contractions; associated with hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism.
tetraiodothyronine Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that increases body metabolism; thyroxine (T4).
thyroid carcinoma Malignant tumor of the thyroid gland.
thyroid function tests Measurement of the thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the bloodstream.
thyroid gland Endocrine gland in the neck on either side of the trachea.
thyroid scan Administration of a radioactive compound and visualization of the thyroid gland with a scanning device.
thyroiditis Inflammation of the thyroid gland.
thyrotoxicosis Hyperthyroidism (over activity of the thyroid gland).
thyrotropin Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete its hormones. Also called thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH.
thyroxine Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland to increase boy metabolism (t4).
triiodothyronine Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland (contains three atoms of iodine); stimulates body metabolism; T3.
vasopressin Hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water. Also called antidiuretic hormone or ADH.
Created by: mtathome