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Autonomics H&N

Autonomics of the Head and Neck

The cranial portion of the parasympathetic nervous system leaves the brainstem on which cranial nerves? CN III, VII, IX, and X
Which cranial nerves carry the parasympathetics for the head? For the body? CN III, VII, IX; rest is CN X
What are the four pair of parasympathetic ganglia in the head? ciliary, otic, pterygopalatine, submandibular
Which CN supplies the preganglionic fibers to the ciliary ganglion? Only CN III
Which CN supplies the preganglionic fibers to the otic ganglion? CN IX
Which CN supplies the preganglionic fibers to the submandibular ganglion? CN VII
Which CN supplies the preganglionic fibers to the pterygopalatine ganglion? CN VII
The ___ ganglion is a small ganglion located towards the back of the orbit on the lateral side of the optic nerve. Ciliary
How many roots does the ciliary ganglion have? What are they? Where do they get their fibers? Three; sensory root (nasocilliary n.), sympathetic root (internal carotid plexus), and the parasympathetic root (CN III)
How do the postganglionic parasympathetics leave the ciliary ganglion? Via the short cilliary nerves (along with the sensory fibers from the trigeminal nerve and sympathetic fibers from internal carotid plexus)
The ___ ganglion lies in the ____ fossa where it is suspended from the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve by two communicating fibers. Pterygopalatine
Where does th pterygopalatine ganglion get its parasympathetic fibers from? From the nerve of the pterygoid canal (which is in itself a combination of the preganglionic parasympathetic and taste fibers from the greater petrosal nerve of CN VII and postgang sympas from deep petrosal nerve)
The postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the pterygopalatine ganglion join what nerves? The greater and lesser palatine nerves, posterior nasal branches, nasopalatine nerve, pharyngeal nerve, zygomatic nerve
The branches leaving the pterygopalatine ganglion also have sensory fibers from the ___ nerve, postganglionic sympathetic fibers from the ___ ___ nerve. trigeminal nerve; deep petrosal nerve
The greater and lesser palatine branches also contain taste branches from the ___ ___ nerve. Greater petrosal (CN VII)
The submandibular ganglion lies ___ to the mandible suspended from the ___ nerve and close to the upper border of the ____ gland. medial; lingual; submandibular
What fibers does the submandibular ganglion get from the lingual nerve? Preganglionic and postganglionic parasympathetic fibers
The preganglionic parasympathetic fibers of the submandibular ganglion reach the lingual nerve of the trigeminal through the ____ ____ which contains preganglionic parasympathetic and taste fibers Chorda tympani
Describe the pathway of the chorda tympani Leaves facial nerve IN THE PETROUS PART of the temporal bone; traverses middle ear cavity; leaves skull through petrotympanic fissure
Some of the postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the submandibular ganglion proceed to the ____ gland; the remainder join the lingual nerve and proceed forward to the ___ and ____ ____ glands. submandibular; sublingual and lingual salivary
Where does the otic ganglion lie? On the medial side of the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve, just outside the foramen ovale and deep in the infratemporal fossa
Where does the otic ganglion get its preganglionic parasympathetics? From the lesser petrossal nerve
What cranial nerve does the lesser petrosal nerve arise from? The greater petrosal nerve? The deep petrosal nerve? glossopharyngeal (CN IX); facial nerve (CNVII); carotid plexus
Describe the path of the parasympathetics carried in the lesser petrosal nerve CN IX (pregang)-->tympanic plexus-->lesser petrosal nerve-->otic ganglion-->V3 (auricotemporal n.)-->parotid gland
List the spaces and openings that the lesser petrosal nerve passes through middle ear cavity-->(hiatus of the lesser petrosal nerve)-->middle cranial fossa-->(foramen ovale)-->infratemporal fossa
* * Where do all of the sympathetic fibers to the head derive from? superior cervical ganglion
Where are the preganglionic sympathetic neurons located? In the lateral gray horns of the upper thoracic segments of the spinal cords
How do the postganglionic sympathetics leave the superior cervical ganglion? Via the external and internal carotid arteries (external and internal carotid nerves)
What is the external carotid plexus One/several nerves run down from superior cervical ganglion to the base of the external carotid artery, forming a plexus along its walls
What is the common carotid plexus? Similar to the external carotid plexus, it is composed of the posganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers from the superior servical ganglion; they reach the common carotid plexus
What is the largest branch of the superior cervical ganglion? Where does it go? What plexus does it form once it enters it? The internal carotid nerve; to the head; forms the internal carotid plexus
While it is close to the middle ear cavity, the internal carotid plexus gives off twigs that join the ___ ___ on the medial wall of the tympanic cavity tympanic plexus
What two groups of sympathetic fibers leave the tympanic plexus during the course of the internal carotid artery through the cavernous sinus? Sympathetic root to the Cilliary ganglion; deep petrosal nerve
Where do the sympathetic root fibers of the ciliary ganglion end up? The pass through the ganglion without synapsis, pass through short ciliary nerves, and are distributed to the DILATOR PUPIL and VASCULATURE OF THE EYE
Where do the deep petrosal nerve sympathetic fibers end up? Deep petrosal nerve joins greater petrosal nerve-->NERVE OF THE PTERYGOID CANAL; postgangsympas pass THROUGH pterygopalatine ganglion and distribute through ALL branches of the maxillary division of trigeminal nerve
What does stimulation of the sympathetic fibers cause in the following structures? Pupil, eyelid, blood vessels, skin Dilation (mydriasis); elevation of eyelid; vasoconstriction; sweating
What is Horner's syndrome (symptoms)? What causes it? ptosis, myosis, anhydrosis, vasodilation (redness), enophthalamus, decreased heart rate; interruption of the sympathetic pathway anywhere along its course to the head and neck
Why can heart rate slow down in Horner's syndrome? Sympathetic cardiac branches are derived from the cervical sympathetic ganglia
Study p. 249-251 Study p. 249-251 for review
Created by: karkis77



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