Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

The Trigeminal

Trigeminal nerve anatomy

QuestionAnswer
The trigeminal nerve is the nerve of the ____ branchial arch. First
What are the two bundles it splits off into? Where does it emerge from? Emerges from the side of the pons (brainstem) and separates into large sensory root and the small motor root
The two roots enter the ____ cave (aka ___ ___) in the dura mater trigeminal; Meckel's cave
What ganglion contains the sensory neuron cell bodies? The trigeminal ganglion
What are the three main divisions of the trigeminal nerve? What types of fibers do each of them carry? Opthalmic (purely sensory); maxillary (purely sensory); and mandibular (sensory and motor--all of its motor fibers are here)
Does the trigeminal nerve have any parasympathetics? Not of its own, but it carries some from cranial nerves III, VII, and IX
What fissure does the opthalmic (V1) branch pass through? The superior orbital fissure
What is the most superior branch of V1? Where is it located? The frontal branch; most superior branch in the orbit
What two branches does the frontal give off? The supratrochlear branch and the supraorbital branch
What does the supratrochlear branch of V1's frontal nerve do? smaller, more medial branch; runs superior to trochlea of superior oblique; supplies the scalp as far as the vertex of the skull and also sends branches to the upper eyelid
What does the supraorbital branch of V1's frontal nerve do? larger, lateral branch; passes through the supraorbital notch or foramen; supplies the scalo as far as the vertex of the skull and sends branches to the upper eyelid
What structures pass through the cavernous sinus? Middle: pituatary; laterally from superior to inferior: CNIII, CNIV, (more medial) internal carotid artery, (right below ICA)CN VI, laterally: V1, V2
Where does the lacrimal nerve branch of V1 pass through? What does it innervate? Where does it get its postganglionic parasympathetics? Along the upper edge of the lateral rectus eye muscle; passes through the lacrimal gland, giving it sensory twigs and ends in palpebral branches of upper eyelid; from pterygopalatine ganglion via the zygomatic branch of the maxillary nerve (V2)
Describe the path of the nasocilliary nerve Proceeds anteromedially between superior rectus and the optic nerve following the course of the opthalmic artery
What are the four branches given off by the nasocilliar nerve? The long ciliary, posterior ethmoidal, anterior ethmoidal, infratrochlear
What does the long ciliary nerve do? Sends sensory fibers to the eyeball (notably, the cornea); postganglionic sympathetic fibers to the dilator of the pupil and the vasculature of the eye
What does the posterior ethmoidal nerve do? Enters the posterior ethmoidal foramen; sends sensory fibers to the sphenoidal air sinuses and posterior ethmoidal air cells
Describe the path of the anterior ethmoidal nerve. Ant. ethmoidal foramen (sensory fibers to middle and anterior ethmoidal air cells); cranial cavity at side of cribiform plate (sensory fibers to meninges); nasal cavity through nasal slit (sensory fib. to ant. part of nasal septum and ant. lateral walls);
What types of fibers does the anterior ethmoidal nerve have? Sense (no smell)
What does the infratrochlear nerve do? Path and innervation Passes forward beneath the trochlea; sensory to the side of the nose and the medial corner of the upper eyelid
Immediately after the nasocilliary nerve enters the orbit, it is connected to the ____ ganglion by a small twig called the ____ root of the ___ ganglion. cilliary; sensory
What are the three roots of the ciliary ganglion? Sensory root (connects to nasociliary nerve), sympathetic root (for postganglionic sympathetics), the motor (parasympathetic) root with preganglionic parasympathetics that synapse in ganglion
Describe the path of the maxillary division of the opthalmic branch of CN V as it begins Enters lateral wall of cavernous sinus; passes through foramen rotundum to enter pterygopalatine fossa
Within the pterygopalatine fossa, the maxillary division is connected to the _____ ganglion and the ___ of the ___ ___ for exchange of fibers. pterygopalatine ganglion; nerve of the pterygoid canal
What fibers does the pterygopalatine ganglion provide? Postganglionic parasympathetics
What two nerves comprise the nerve of the pterygoid canal? Greater petrosal nerve-taste and preganglionic parasympathetic fibers (from facial nerve); Deep petrosal nerve-postganglionic sympathetic fibers (from internal carotid plexus)
What happens after CN V2 receives branches in the pterygopalatine fossa? Proceeds through the inferior orbital fissure to the floor of the orbit becoming the infraorbital nerve; it passes along the infraorbital groove, canal, and foramen; finally emerges on face
* Describe the path of the greater and lesser palatine nerve Descend through palatine canals and emerge on the greater and lesser palatine foramina to reach the hard and soft palates of the mouth
* What types of fibers are carried by the greater and lesser palatine nerves? Where do the fibers come from? General sensory fibers from V2; postgang. paras. from pterygopalatine ganglion; taste fibers from greater petrosal branch of facial nerver (taste buds for roof of mouth); postgang. sympathetics from deep petrosal nerve
Describe the path of the upper posterior nasal nasopalatine nerves Pass into nasal cavity via sphenopalatine foramen;
Describe the path of the lower posterior nasal nerves Originate from the greater palatine nerve as it descends in greater palatine canal; pass through small bony foramina to enter nasal cavity
What structure do the posterior nasal branches supply? Posterior part of the nasal septum and posterior walls of the nasal cavity
The nasopalatine nerve proceeds antero-inferiorly through the ___ ___ and enters the mouth through the ___ ___ behind the upper incisor teeth to supply a small anterior portion of the hard palate. They lack what fibers? nasal septum; incisive foramen; no taste
What fibers are carried by the posterior nasal branches and nasopalatine nerves? General sensory (from V2), postganglionic parasympathetics (frm pterygopalatine ganglion), and postganglionic sympathetics from deep petrosal nerve
Where does the pharyngeal branch of the maxillary division of CN V pass through to leave the pterygopalatine fossa? Passes posteriorly from pterygopalatine ganglion, leaves pterygopalatine fossa through palatovaginal (pharyngeal) canal
What structures does the pharyngeal branch supply? Mucosa and glands of the nasopharynx
What branches are carried by the pharyngeal branch of CN V? general sensory fibers from V2, postganglionic parasympathetics from pterygopalatine ganglion, and postganglionic sympathetics from deep petrossal nerve
What are the branches arising from the main trunk of the maxillary nerve and the infraorbital nerve (that is, everything in V2 after passing pterygopalatine fossa) Orbital branches, zygomatic branch, the superior alveolar nerves (post., middle, ant.); and infraorbital nerve
Describe the path of the orbital branches of the maxillary nerve. What do they supply? Pass through inferior orbital fissure; contribute to supply orbital wall; contribute to the supply of the ethmoidal, sphenoidal, and frontal air sinuses
What nerve supplies the ethmoidal, sphenoidal, and frontal air sinuses? Orbital branches of V2
Where does the zygomatic branch of the maxillary nerve arise from? Arise from the maxillary nerve within the pterygopalatine fossa; passes into orbit and splits into zygomaticofacial and zygomaticotemporal branches (sensory to zygomatic and temporal regions of the face)
Describe the path of the parasympathetic fibers in the zygomatic nerve Receives postganglionic parasympathetics from pterygopalatine ganglion which are handed over to the lacrimal nerve of V1
Posterior superior alveolar nerve: path, structures supplied From main trunk of maxillary nerve (while in pterygopalatine fossa); supplies mucous membrane of maxillary sinuses and upper molar teeth
Middle superior alveolar nerve: path, structures supplied Arises from infraorbital nerve within the infraorbital groove/canal; supplies mucous membrane of the maxillary sinuses and upper premolar teeth
Anterior superior alveolar nerve: path, Arises from infraorbital nerve in anterior part of the infraorbital canal; supplies mucous membrane of maxillary sinuses and upper three anterior teeth
posterior, middle, and anterior superior alveolar nerves intermingle forming a ____ ___ before innervating the teeth dental plexus
What are the fiber types for the superior alveolar nerves? General sensory V2; postganglionic parasympathetic from pterygopalatine gang.; postganglionic sympathetics from deep petrosal nerve
What structures are supplied by the infraorbital nerve? lower eyelid, side of the nose, upper lip, front of the cheeck, and nasal vestibule
What division of the trigeminal nerve receives all of the motor fibers of the trigeminal? The mandibular division
Where does the mandibular division exit from? What does it enter? Through foramen ovale to enter the infratemporal fossa
What does the mandibular division connect to in the infratemporal fossa? The otic ganglion
* What structures are supplied by the motor branches of the trigeminal? muscles of mastication; mylohyoid and anterior belly of the digastric muscle; tensor of the palate; tensor tympani
The motor branches of the mylohyoid and anterior belly of the digastric are carried by what nerve? The inferior alveolar branch; leaves it just before it enters the inferior alveolar foramen
What are the branches of the main trunk of V3? Meningeal branch, medial pterygoid nerve
What does the meningeal branch of V3 supply? How does it get there? What does it travel with? The dura of the middle cranial fossa and mastoid air cells; enters through foramen spinosum with middle meningeal artery
What does the medial pterygoid nerve of V3 supply? How does it get there? What does it travel with? What types of fibers does it carry? Enters deep surface of medial pterygoid muscle and supplies it; gives off two branches: nerve to the tensor tympani and nerve to the tensor palate (both are motor)
What are the branches of the anterior division of the madibular division of CN V? The masseteric, deep temporal, lateral pterygoid, and long buccal nerves
What does the masseteric muscle supply? Passes through the mandibular notch to supply the masseter muscle; gives sensory twig to the temporomandibular joint
What do the temporal nerves supply? Supply temporalis muscle (motor); gives off twig to the temporomandibular joint
What does the lateral pterygoid nerve supply? Lateral pterygoid muscle (motor)
What three nerves provide somatic sensory twigs to the temporomandibular joint? Masseteric nerve, deep temporal nerve, and the auricotemporal nerves
Where is the long buccal nerve (path)? What does it supply? Passes laterally between heads of the lateral pterygoid muscle; descends over buccinator muscle; supplies mucous membrane of the cheek and gums (molar area) and skin of overlying cheek
What are the branches of the posterior division of V3? Mainly sensory except for mylohyoid nerve: auricotemporal, inferior alveolar, lingual
Describe the path of the auricotemporal nerve Runs posteriorly and splits around middle meningeal artery; reforms and runs through parotid gland to be distributed to external ear and scalp over temporal region
What ganglion does the auricotempoeral nerve receive parastympathetics from? Receives postganglionic parasympathetics from otic ganglion
Describe the origin of the auricotemporal parasympathetic fibers Glossopharyngeal nerve-->tympanic branch-->lesser petrossal nerve-->otic ganglion-->auricotemporal nerve-->parotid
What is the MAIN sensory supply to the temporomandibular joing? Branches of the auricotemporal nerve
What structures are supplied by the auricotemporal nerve branches? temporomandibular joint, parotid gland, external auditory meatus, tympanic membrane, anterior portion of the external ear, skin covering temporal fossa
What types of fibers does the inferior alveolar nerve have? General sensory and motor fibers
Describe the path of the inferior alveolar nerve Enters mandibular foramen (after giving off nerve to mylohyoid)
Main trunk of the inferior alveolar nerve supplies what structures? Molar and premolar teeth
What are the two terminal branches of the inferior alveolar teeth? What do they supply? mental nerve: passes out mental foramen to supply skin of lower lip and chin, mucous membrane of lower lip, gigiva of buccal side of mandibular incisor, canine, and premolar teeth; incisive nerve: lower canine and incisior teeth
What does the mylohyoid branch supply? mylohyoid muscle and anterior belly of the digastric
What fibers does the lingual nerve have? Contains general sensory fibers (for anterior 2/3 of tongue, lingual gingiva, and floor of mouth)
What branch of the facial nerve joins it? What does it contain? Chorda tympani: pre-ganglionic parasympathetics, taste fibers for taste buds of anterior 2/3 of tongue (fungiform papillae)
Describe the course of the chorda tympani leaves facial nerve while it runs through facial canal; runs along lateral wall of tympanic cavity-->emerges through petrotympanic fissure to join lingual nerve
What is the course of the lingual nerve? What structures is it associated with? Related to the third molar tooth and can be be damaged during extraction of the tooth; crosses floor of mouth close to submandibular duct
Describe the origin of the lingual nerve parasympathetic fibers Pregang. paras. of chorda tympani depart from lingual nerve in region of submandibular ganglion; synapse with parasympathetic neurons in submandibular ganglion (connected to lingual nerve)
What structures receive parasympathetic fibers from the lingual nerve? submandibular gland, sublingual and lingual salivary glands
What are symptoms associated with trigeminal nerve lesion loss of facial sensation, deviation of jaw towards side of lesion, trigeminal neuralgia. Trigeminal neuralgia on maxillary division most common; referred pain to other branches
Created by: karkis77