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LOM Book Chapter 17

Language of Medicine Chapter 17 - Created by

accommodation Normal adjustment of the eye to focus on objects from far to near.
acoustic Pertaining to hearing.
acoustic neuroma Benign tumor arising from the acoustic nerve.
amblyopia Reduced vision (poor eyesight).
anisocoria Inequality in the size of pupils.
anterior chamber Space behind the cornea and in front of the lens and iris; contains aqueous humor.
aphakia Absence of the lens of the eye.
aqueous humor Fluid produced by the ciliary body and found in the anterior chamber of the eye.
astigmatism Abnormal curvature of the eyeball so that rays of light are not focused on a single point on the retina.
audiogram Record of hearing using an audiometer.
audiometer Instrument to measure or test hearing.
audiometry Process of testing hearing.
auditory canal Channel leading from the ear flap to the eardrum.
auditory meatus Opening of the auditory canal to the outside of the body.
auditory nerve fibers Carry impulses from the inner ear to the brain (cerebral cortex).
auditory tube Channel between the middle ear and the throat; eustachian tube.
aural Pertaining to the ear.
auricle Flap of the ear; pinna.
biconvex Having two sides that are rounded, elevated, and curved evenly like part of a sphere. The lens of the eye is biconvex.
blepharitis Inflammation of an eyelid.
blepharoptosis Blepharoptosis is prolapse of the upper eyelid; ptosis.
cataract Clouding or loss of transparency of the lens of the eye.
cerumen Waxy substance secreted by the ear; ear wax.
chalazion Small, hard mass (granuloma) on the eyelid.
cholesteatoma Middle ear mass of cellular debris and cholesterol crystals.
choroid Middle, vascular layer of the eye.
ciliary body Structure on each side of the lens that connects the choroid and iris; contains muscles that control the shape of the lens.
cochlea Snail-shaped, spirally wound tube in the inner ear; contains hearing-sensitive receptor cells.
cochlear Pertaining to the cochlea.
cone Photoreceptor cell in the retina; responsible for color and central vision.
conjunctiva Delicate membrane lining the eyelids and covering the eyeball.
conjunctivitis Inflammation of the conjunctiva.
cornea Fibrous transparent layer of clear tissue that extends over the anterior portion of the eyeball.
corneal abrasion Rubbing off of a part of the outer layer of the cornea.
corneoscleral Pertaining to the cornea and sclera, which is the white of the eye.
cycloplegia Paralysis of the muscles of the ciliary body.
dacryoadenitis Inflammation of tear glands.
deafness Loss of the ability to hear.
diabetic retinopathy Disease of the retina due to long-term effects of diabetes.
diplopia Double vision.
ear thermometry Measurement of the temperature of the tympanic membrane by detection of infrared radiation from the eardrum.
endolymph Fluid within the labyrinth (canals) of the inner ear; conducts sound waves.
enucleation Removal of the eyeball from the orbit of the eye.
esotropia Turning inward of one or both pupils; cross-eyes.
eustachian tube Channel between the middle ear and the throat; auditory tube.
exotropia Turning to the side or outward of one or both pupils.
fluorescein angiography Process of recording (viewing and photographing) the circulation of a fluorescein dye through the blood vessels of the retina.
fovea centralis Tiny pit or depression in the retina that is the region of clearest vision.
fundus of the eye Large, posterior inner part of the eye that is visualized with an ophthalmoscope.
glaucoma Fluid accumulation in the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye causing increased pressure and damage to the retina.
hemianopsia Absence of vision for one half, right or left, of an individual’s field of vision.
hordeolum Inflammation of an oil-secreting gland in the eyelid; stye.
hyperacusis Excessive sensitivity to sounds.
hyperopia Farsightedness; light rays are focused beyond, instead of directly on the retina.
hypertensive retinopathy Disease of the retina due to high blood pressure.
incus Small anvil-shaped bone (ossicle) in the middle ear; second ossicle.
intraocular Pertaining to within the eye.
iridectomy Removal of a portion of the iris.
iridic Pertaining to the iris.
iris Colored, pigmented portion of the eye, surrounding the pupil.
iritis Inflammation of the iris of the eye.
keratitis Inflammation of the cornea.
keratoplasty Surgical repair of the cornea; corneal transplant.
labyrinth Maze-like series of canals of the inner ear; cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals.
lacrimal Pertaining to tears.
lacrimation Production of tears.
laser photocoagulation Use of a laser to seal retinal tears and leaky retinal blood vessels.
lens Transparent biconvex body behind the pupil of the eye.
macrotia Abnormally large ears.
macula Yellowish region on the retina lateral to and slightly below the optic disc; contains the fovea centralis, the area of clearest and central vision.
macular degeneration Deterioration of the macula of the retina and producing a loss of central vision.
malleus Hammer-shaped, small bone (ossicle) in the middle ear.
mastoiditis Inflammation and infection of the mastoid process just behind the ear.
Meniere disease Disorder of the labyrinth of the inner ear; elevated endolymph (fluid) pressure.
microtia Abnormally small ears.
miosis Contraction of the pupil of the eye.
miotic Drug that causes the pupil of the eye to contract.
mydriasis Widening of the pupil of the eye.
myopia Nearsightedness; vision for near objects is better than for far.
myringitis Inflammation of the eardrum.
myringotomy Incision of the eardrum.
nyctalopia Night blindness or difficult, poor vision at night.
nystagmus Repetitive, rhythmic movements of one or both eyes.
ophthalmic Pertaining to the eye.
ophthalmologist Medical doctor specializing in the diseases of the eye.
ophthalmoscopy Visual examination of the interior of the eye.
optic chiasm Point at which optic nerve fibers cross in the brain.
optic disc Region at the back of the eye where the optic nerve meets the retina.
optic nerve Cranial nerve that carries impulses from the rod and cone cells of the retina to the cerebral cortex in the occipital lobe of the brain.
optician Non-medical professional trained in grinding lenses and fitting eyeglasses.
optometrist Non-medical professional trained to examine and measure the eye to prescribe and fit eyeglasses and contact lenses.
ossicle Small bone; malleus, incus, or stapes of the middle ear.
ossiculoplasty Surgical repair of an ossicle (small bone) of the middle ear.
otic Pertaining the ear.
otolaryngologist Specialist (surgeon)in ear, nose, and throat disorders.
otomycosis Fungal infection of the ear.
otopyorrhea Discharge of pus from the ear.
otosclerosis Overgrowth and hardening of bony tissue in the labyrinth (inner ear).
otoscopy Visual examination of the ear using an otoscope.
oval window Membrane between the middle and inner ears.
palpebral Pertaining to an eyelid.
papilledema Swelling of the optic disc; associated with increased pressure within the eye.
perilymph Fluid contained in the labyrinth (canals of the inner ear).
phacoemulsification Lens of the eye is extracted (cataract removal) using ultrasonic vibrations.
photophobia Sensitivity to light.
pinna Outer ear flap; auricle.
postauricular Pertaining to behind the ear.
presbycusis Progressive loss of hearing, occurring in middle and older ages.
presbyopia Impairment of vision associated with middle or older ages.
pupil Dark, central portion of the eye.
pupillary Pertaining to the pupil of the eye.
refraction Bending of light rays by the cornea, lens, and fluids of the eye to bring light rays into focus on the retina.
retina Sensitive nerve cell layer of the eye.
retinal detachment Separation of the two layers of the retina from each other.
retinitis pigmentosa Inflammation of the retina with pigmentation and progressive scarring of tissue.
rod Photoreceptor retinal cell; essential for seeing objects in low light and for peripheral vision.
salpingopharyngeal Pertaining to the eustachian tube and the throat.
sclera White portion of the eyeball.
scleral buckle Procedure to suture a band of silicone on the sclera directly over a detached portion of the retina.
scleritis Inflammation of the sclera.
scotoma Blind spot in the field of vision.
semicircular canals Passageways in the inner ear that are associated with maintaining equilibrium.
serous otitis media Non-infectious inflammation of the middle ear with accumulation of clear fluid.
slit-lamp microscopy Examination of ocular (eye) structures using a slit lamp and microscope.
stapedectomy Removal of the stapes (third middle ear bone).
stapes Small, stirrup-shaped bone in the middle ear; third ossicle.
strabismus Abnormal deviation of the pupils; esotropia or exotropia are examples.
suppurative otitis media Infectious inflammation of the middle ear with pus formation.
thalamus Relay center in the brain through which optic nerve fibers pass on their way to the cerebral cortex.
tinnitus Ringing, buzzing or roaring sound in the ear.
tonometry Measurement of tension and pressure within the eye; glaucoma test.
tuning fork tests Measure bone and air conduction of sound through the ear.
tympanic membrane Membrane between the outer and middle ear; eardrum.
tympanoplasty Surgical repair of the eardrum.
uveitis Inflammation of the uvea, which is the vascular layer of the eye (including the iris, choroids, and ciliary body).
vertigo Abnormal sensation of moving in space or having objects move about you in space.
vestibule Central cavity of the labyrinth, connecting the cochlea and semicircular canals.
vestibulocochlear Pertaining to the vestibule and cochlea.
visual acuity test Measurement of clearness of vision; assessed by reading letters of decreasing size on an eye chart.
visual field test Measurement of the area in front of the eye in any part of which an object is seen without moving the eye.
vitrectomy Removal of vitreous humor.
Xerophthalmia Condition of excessive dryness of the eye.
Created by: mtathome
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