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LOM Book Chapter 15

Language of Medicine Chapter 15 - Created by

abduction Muscle movement away from the midline of the body.
acetabulum Rounded depression or socket in the pelvis, which joins the femur forming the hip joint.
acromion Outward extension of the shoulder blade forming the point of the shoulder.
adduction Muscle movement toward the midline of the body.
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Damage to nerves on the lateral (side) columns of the spinal cord and lower region of the brain, leading to progressive muscular paralysis.
ankylosing spondylitis Chronic inflammatory joint disease involving the backbones; marked by stiffness and eventual fusion (ankylosis) of involved joints.
ankylosis Immobility (fusion) of a joint due to disease, injury, or surgical procedure.
antinuclear antibody test Detects an antibody present in serum of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
arthrocentesis Surgical puncture to remove fluid from a joint.
arthrodesis Surgical fusion of a joint to eliminate movement.
arthrography X-ray imaging of a joint after injection of contrast material.
arthroplasty Surgical repair of a joint (with prostheses); total hip replacement and total knee replacement are examples.
arthroscopy Visual examination of the inside of joint with an endoscope.
arthrotomy Incision of a joint.
articular cartilage Thin layer of cartilage surrounding the bones in the joint space.
articulation A connection between bones; joint.
atrophy Wasting away (lack of development) of a normally developed organ or tissue (especially muscle).
blepharoptosis Drooping of the upper eyelids.
bone density test Low energy x-rays are taken of bones in the spinal column, pelvis, and wrist to determine bone density; also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA or DXA).
bone scan Uptake of a radioactive substance is measure in bone.
bunion Abnormal swelling of the joint between the big toe and a bone of the foot.
bursa (pl. bursae) Sac of fluid between tendons and bones near a joint.
bursitis Inflammation of a bursa surrounding a joint.
calcaneal Pertaining to the calcaneus (heel bone).
calcaneus Heel bone.
calcium One of the mineral constituents of bone.
cancellous bone Spongy, porous bone tissue in the inner part of a bone.
carpal tunnel syndrome Compression (by a wrist ligament) of the median nerve as is passes between the ligament and bones and tendons of the wrist.
carpals Bones of the wrist.
cartilage Flexible, connective tissue that is firmer than muscle, yet softer than bone.
cervical vertebrae Seven backbones in the neck.
chondrocostal Pertaining to cartilage that is attached to the ribs.
chondroma Benign tumor of cartilage.
chondromalacia Softening of cartilage.
clavicle Collar bone.
coccyx Tailbone.
collagen Dense connective tissue strands of protein found in bone.
Colles fracture Broken bone occurring in the wrist at the lower end of the radius.
comminuted fracture Broken bone that is splintered or crushed.
compact bone Hard, dense bone tissue.
computed tomography X-ray beam and a computer provide cross-sectional images of bones and soft tissue abnormalities.
condyle Knuckle-like process at the end of a bone near the joint.
cranial bones Bones of the skull; ethmoid, frontal, occipital, parietal, sphenoid, and temporal bones.
craniotome Instrument to cut the skull (cranium).
craniotomy Incision of the skull.
crepitus Crackling sound produced when ends of bone rub against each other or against roughened cartilage.
decalcification Loss or removal of calcium from bones or teeth.
diaphysis Shaft or mid-portion of a long bone.
discography X-ray images of cervical or lumbar intervertebral disks after injection of contrast material into the interior of the disk.
dislocation Displacement of a bone from its joint.
dorsiflexion Backward (upward) bending of the foot.
electromyography Process of recording the strength of muscle contraction as a result of electrical stimulation.
epiphyseal plate Layer of cartilage at the ends of long bones where lengthwise bone growth takes place.
epiphysis Each end of a long bone.
erythrocyte sedimentation rate Measures the rate at which erythrocytes settle to the bottom of a test tube.
ethmoid bone Thin, delicate bone that supports the nasal cavity and forms part of the orbits of the eye.
Ewing sarcoma Malignant bone tumor occurring in children.
fascia Fibrous membrane separating and enveloping muscle.
fasciectomy Removal of fascia.
femoral Pertaining to the femur.
femur Thigh bone.
fibromyalgia Chronic pain and stiffness in muscles and fibrous tissue, especially in the shoulders, neck, hips, and knees.
fibula Smaller of the two lower leg bones.
fibular Pertaining to the fibula.
fissure Narrow, slit-like opening in or between bones.
flexion Decreasing the angle between two bones, as in bending a limb.
fontanelle Soft spot between skull bones of an infant.
foramen Opening or passage in bones where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave.
fossa Shallow cavity in a bone.
frontal bone Skull bone that forms the forehead and bony sockets that contain the eyes.
ganglion Cystic mas arising from a tendon.
gouty arthritis Inflammation of joints caused by excessive uric acid in the blood and uric acid crystals deposited in joints.
Haversian canals Minute spaces for blood vessels in compact bone.
hemarthrosis Condition of blood in a joint.
humeral Pertaining to the humerus (upper arm bone).
humerus Upper arm bone.
hydrarthrosis Condition of water or fluid in a joint.
hypercalcemia High levels of calcium in the blood.
hypertrophy Increase in size of tissue or an organ due to increase in size of individual cells.
hyperuricemia Increase in uric acid in the blood.
Iliac Pertaining to the ilium (upper and largest portion of the pelvic bone).
Ilium Upper and largest portion of the pelvic (hip) bone.
impacted fracture Broken bone in which one fragment is driven firmly into the other fragment.
ischium Posterior (back) portion of the pelvic (hip) bone.
kyphosis Abnormal condition of outward curvature (convexity) of the thoracic spine.
lacrimal bones Two small facial bones that contain tear glands and canals for the passage of tear ducts.
lamina One of two posterior (back) arches of a vertebra.
laminectomy Surgical removal of the posterior portion of a vertebra to relive pressure on a spinal nerve or spinal cord from a displaced intervertebral disk.
leiomyoma Benign tumor of smooth, involuntary muscle.
ligament Connective tissue binding bones to other bones.
ligamentous Pertaining to a ligament.
lordosis Forward curvature of the lumbar spinal column. In its extreme form it is known as “swayback”.
lumbar vertebrae Backbones (5) in the region of the waist (middle section below the chest).
lumbosacral Pertaining to the lower bones of the back (lumbar and sacral regions).
Lyme disease Chronic, recurrent disorder marked by severe arthritis, myalgias, neurologic and cardiac symptoms. It is caused by a deer tick and was first reported in Old Lyme, Connecticut.
magnetic resonance imaging A magnetic field and radio waves create images of soft tissues and muscles.
malleolar Pertaining to a malleolus.
malleolus Either of two bony enlargements (processes) on each side of an ankle.
mandible Lower jaw bone.
mandibular Pertaining to the lower jaw bone.
manubrium Upper portion of the sternum.
mastoid process Round projection (process) on the temporal bone behind the ear.
medullary cavity Inner section of a bone containing soft bone marrow tissue.
metacarpals Hand bones.
metaphysis Flared portion of a long bone, between the diaphysis (shaft) of the bone and the epiphyseal plate at the end of the bone.
metatarsalgia Foot pain.
metatarsals Foot bones.
muscle biopsy Removal of muscle tissue for microscopic examination.
muscular dystrophy Group of inherited disorders marked by progressive weakness and degeneration of muscle fibers.
myalgia Muscle pain.
myelopoiesis Formation of bone marrow.
myopathy Disease of muscles.
myositis Inflammation of muscles.
nasal bone One of two facial bones that form the nose.
occipital bone Forms the posterior portion of the skull.
olecranal Pertaining to the elbow (olecranon).
olecranon Large process on the end (proximal) of the ulna; elbow.
orthopedics Surgical specialty devoted to straightening, correcting and treating deformities and diseases in bones.
osseous tissue Bone tissue.
ossification Process of forming bone.
osteitis Inflammation of bone.
osteoarthritis Inflammation of bones and joints with degeneration of cartilage in the joint space.
osteoblast Bone cell responsible for forming bony tissue.
osteoclast Large bone cell that functions to absorb and remove unwanted bony tissue during growth and healing of fractures.
osteodystrophy Abnormal development of bone.
osteogenesis imperfect Congenital bone disease in which bones are unusually brittle and fragile.
osteogenic sarcoma Malignant (cancerous) tumor of bone tissue.
osteomalacia Softening of bones with inadequate amounts of mineral (calcium) in bone; rickets.
osteomyelitis Inflammation of bone and bone marrow.
osteopenia Deficiency of bone tissue caused by destruction of bone tissue that exceeds the rate of bone matrix growth.
osteoporosis Abnormal condition of increased loss of bony tissue. Bones become thin, weak, brittle, and break easily.
osteotome Instrument to cut bone.
parietal bones Two bones on either side of the skull.
patella Kneecap.
pelvimetry Measurement of the hip bone to determine if delivery of the infant through the vagina is possible.
periosteum Membrane surrounding bones.
peroneal Pertaining to the fibula.
phalangeal Pertaining to finger and toe bones.
phalanges Finger and toe bones.
phosphorus Mineral found in bones and teeth.
plantar flexion Motion that extends the foot downward toward the ground.
podagra Foot pain that occurs in the joint of the big toe in gout (gouty arthritis).
polyarthritis Inflammation of many joints.
polymyalgia Pain of many (several) muscles, especially in the shoulders and hips.
polymyositis Inflammation of many muscles.
pronation As applied to the hand and forearm, the act of turning the palm backward or down.
pubic symphysis Area of confluence of the two pubic bones in the midline of the pelvic bone. It is a slightly movable joint separated by a disk of fibrocartilage.
pubis One of two bones forming the front portion of the hipbone.
pyrexia Fever
radial Pertaining to the radius, a bone in the lower arm (thumb side of the wrist).
radius One of two bones in the lower arm (connecting to the wrist on the thumb side).
red bone matter Soft bone tissue in spongy, cancellous bone; site of hematopoiesis.
reduction Reconnection of a bone to its normal position after a fracture.
rhabdomyoma Benign tumor of striated, voluntary muscle (attached to bones).
rhabdomyosarcoma Malignant tumor of striated, voluntary muscle.
rheumatoid arthritis Chronic inflammatory and painful disease of joints; caused by autoimmune reaction against joint tissues (synovial membrane).
rheumatoid factor test Serum (blood minus clotting proteins and cells) is tested for the presence of an antibody found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
rheumatologist Medical doctor specializing in diagnosis and treatment of joint disorders.
ribs Twelve pairs of curved, elongated bones in the chest.
rotation Circular movement around an axis (central point).
sacral vertebrae Bones of the sacrum (lower back below the lumbar region).
scapula Shoulder blade.
scapular Pertaining to the shoulder blade.
scoliosis Abnormal condition of lateral (sideways) curvature of the spine.
sella turcica Depression in the sphenoid bone at the base of the skull; location of the pituitary gland.
serum calcium Measurement of calcium in serum.
serum creatine kinase Measurement of an enzyme (creatine) in serum; increased levels occur in muscular dystrophy, polymyositis, and traumatic injuries.
sinus Hollow, air cavity within a bone.
sphenoid bone Bat-shaped bone that forms part of the base of the skull.
spondylolisthesis Forward slipping or subluxation of one vertebra over another.
spondylosis Abnormal condition of the spine (vertebral column) characterized by stiffness and fixation of vertebral joints.
sprain Trauma to a joint with pain, swelling, and injury to ligaments.
sternum Breast bone.
strain Muscle injury involving overstretching of muscle with pain and swelling.
striated muscle Composed of bands of fibers that make the muscle look striped (striated); attached to bones (voluntary or skeletal muscle).
styloid process Pole-like process extending downward from the temporal bone on each side of the skull.
subcostal Pertaining to under the ribs.
subluxation Partial or incomplete dislocation of a bone from its joint.
subpatellar Pertaining to under the patella (knee cap).
supination As applied to the hand and forearm, the act of turning the palm forward or up.
supraclavicular Pertaining to above the clavicle (collar bone).
suture Immovable, fibrous joint, as between bones of the skull.
suture joint Joint in which apposed bones are closely united.
synovial cavity Space between bones at a synovial joint. It contains synovial fluid.
synovial fluid Sticky (viscous) fluid within the joint space (synovial cavity).
synovial joint Freely movable joint.
synovial membrane Membrane lining the synovial joint cavity; produces synovial fluid.
synovitis Inflammation of the synovial membrane lining the synovial joint.
systemic lupus erythematosus Chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease involving joints, skin, kidneys, blood vessels, and other organs; marked by a reddish (erythematous) facial rash that resembled the bite of a wolf (lupus).
talipes Club foot; foot is fixed in an abnormal position due to a congenital deformity of the ankle and foot.
tarsals Ankle bones.
tarsectomy Removal of an anklebone.
temporal bones Two bones on each side of the skull near the ear.
temporomandibular joint Connection between the temporal bone of the skull and the mandibular bone of the jaw (lower jaw bone).
tendinitis Inflammation of tendons; tendonitis.
tendon A type of connective tissue that binds muscles to bones.
tenorrhaphy Suture of a tendon.
tenosynovitis Inflammation of a tendon and its sheath or covering.
thoracic vertebrae Twelve backbones in the region of the chest.
tibia Larger of the two lower leg bones.
tibial Pertaining to the larger of the two lower leg bones.
trabeculae Supporting bundles of fibers in cancellous, spongy (soft) bone.
trochanter Large process at the neck of the femur (thigh bone).
tubercle Small, rounded process on a bone.
tuberosity Large, rounded process on a bone.
ulna One of two bones in the lower arm; connects to the wrist on the little finger side.
ulnar Pertaining to the ulna.
uric acid test Measurement of uric acid in serum; high levels are associated with gouty arthritis.
vertebra (pl. vertebrae) A backbone.
vomer Thin plate of bone that forms part of the nasal septum, which is the wall separating the nostrils.
xiphoid process Lower, narrow portion of the sternum (breastbone).
yellow bone matter Fatty tissue in the shaft of long bones.
zygomatic bones Cheekbones of the face.
Created by: mtathome
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