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Peritoneum

Peritoneum and Peritoneal reflections

QuestionAnswer
What are the ventral mesentery derivatives? Coronary ligament of liver and its derivatives (i.e. falciform ligament), and the right and left triangular ligaments, the lesser omentum
What are the dorsal mesentery deriviatives? greater omentum (including the lieno-renal and lieno-gastric ligaments), the mesentery of the small intestine, the mesoappendinx, the transverse colon, the sigmoid colon
What do the dorsal/ventral mesentery names arise from? During embryonic development, it indicates the position relative to the gut tube of the mesentery
What are the four parts of the primitive gut (rostral to caudal)? Pharyngeal, foregut, midgut, hindgut
What is the foregut? Portion of the primitive gut that is supplied by the celiac trunk of the aorta
What are the foregut structures? esphagus, stomach (Gaster), 1st and 2nd parts of the duodenum, pancreas, liver (Hepar), gall bladder (would also include the spleen, since also supplied by celiac)
What branch of the aorta supplies the midgut derivatives? The superior mesenteric artery
What are the midgut derivatives? 3rd and 4th part of the duodenum, jejunum, ilium, cecum and vermiform appendix, ascending colon, proximal 2/3 of transverse colon
What branch of the aorta supplies the embryonic hindgut? Inferior mesenteric artery
What are the structures of the hindgut? distal 1/3 of transverse colon, descending and sigmoid colon, rectum, and proximal portion of anal canal
Describe the rotations of the embryonic gut Longitudunal and counterclockwise rotation of the embryonic foregut and midgut: 90 degrees longitudunal rotation of the embryonic foregut towards right side; 270 counterclockwise rotation of the embryonic midgut. Caused by differential growth rates
Describe the difference between the two layers of the peritoneum: parietal and the visceral layer. Parietal: contacts the body wall; visceral: contacts the organs and viscera; the space between them is the peritoneal cavity
What are the two main types of visceral peritoneum? Describe them Mesentery: two layers of visceral peritoneum that connect an organ to the body wall. Visceral ligaments (aka omenta): two layers of visceral peritoneum that connect two organs
List the four mesenteries and what structures they connect mesentery: from loops of intestine to body wall; mesoappendinx: from appendix to body wall; transverse colon: from transverse colon to body wall; sigmoid mesocolon: from sigmoid colon to body wall
List the visceral ligaments Greater omentum, lesser omentum, falciform ligament, coronary ligament, gastrosplenic ligament, lienorenal ligament
What does the greater omentum connect? The stomach and the intestine (hence the other name, gastrocolic ligament)
What does the lesser omentum connect? The liver and the stomach / part of the duodenum (hence the other name, the hepatogastric and the hepatoduodenal ligament)
What does the falciform ligament connect? Connects the liver to the posterior abdominal wall; continues superiorly to connect liver to the inferior edge of the diaphragm
Where is the coronary ligament? Where is it? What are the right and left triangular ligaments? It is located superior to the liver; the areas posteriorly where it pinches off to join the parietal peritoneum forms triangulations (right and left triangular ligament)
Where is the gastrosplenic ligament? What is it? Connects the stomach and the spleen
What is the linorenal ligament (aka splenoreal)? What other organ is it close to? Connects the spleen to the left kidney; the tail of the pancreas pushes slightly into it.
What is the lesser sac or omental bursa? Where is it? Communicate with each other via the epiploic foramen (Foramen of Winslow); it is anterior to the lesser omentum (pocket formed by space between stomach and liver)
Where is the greater sac / omental bursa? It is located anteriorly in the abdominal cavity ("in front" of intestines)?
How do the greater and the lesser sacs communicate with each other? Via the epiploic foramen (aka foramen of winslow)
How is the lesser sac formed? By the right side rotation of the live and stomach
What are the intraperitoneal structures? structures suspended in the peritoneal cavity by mesentery: stomach, spleen, pancreas (tail), liver, gallblad., duodenum (1st part), small intestines from duodenal-jejunal flexure to ileocecal junction, cecum and appendix, transverse colon, sigmoid colon
What are the retroperitoneal structures? Structures that are outside of the peritoneal cavity: kidneys, aorta and IVC, anal canal, urinary bladder
What are the secondary retroperitoneal structures Areas that began as intraperitoneal structures but lost their coverings: duodenum (2nd, 3rd, and 4th parts), pancreas (head and body), liver (bare area), ascending colon, descending colon, rectum
Created by: karkis77