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The Pharynx and the Larynx

The pharynx communicated superiorly with the nasal cavity via the ____, anteriorly with the ___ ____, laterally with the middle ear cavity via the _____ tubes, anterioinferiorly with the larynx via the ____, and posteroinferiorly with the ____ directly. Choanae, oral cavity, eustachian, auditus, esophagus
What are the three main sections of the pharynx? Nasopharynx, orpharynx, and laryngopharynx
* What are the borders of the nasopharynx? What important structures are found in here? From nasal choana to tip of soft palate. Opening of the auditory (Eustachian) tube, salpingopharyngeal fold, pharyngeal tonsils (e.g. adenoids), tubal tonsils
* What are the borders of the orpharynx? What important structures are found in here? From palatoglossal arch and the soft palate to the epiglottis. Palatopharyngeal arch, tonsilar fossa, platine tonsils, lingual tonsils.
* What are the borders of the laryngopharynx? What important structures are found in here? From level of C4-C6 vertebrae that is posterior to the larynx. Epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds, piriform recess
Name the (6) muscles that are found in the pharynx. 3 external, circular constrictor muscles: superior constrictor, middle constrictor, inferior constrictor. 3 internal longitudinal suspensory muscles: stylopharyngeus, palatopharyngeus, salpingopharyngeus muscles
What are the attachments of the superior, middle, and inferior constrictor muscles of the pharynx Sup: Origin-from medial pterygoid plate, insert-post. into median pharyngeal plate. Middle: orig-from lesser and greater cornu of hyoid, insert-into median pharyngeal raphe. Infer: Origin-from thyroid cartilages, insert-post. into median pharyngeal raphe
What structure supplies oall of the constrictor muscles of the pharynx? The pharyngeal plexus formed by pharyngeal sensory branches of the glossopharyngeal CNIX, motor branches from the vagus nerve CNX, and postganglionic symphatetics from the superior cervical ganglion
What is the primary action of the constrictor muscles? Constrict pharynx during swallowing and propel food into the esophagus
Where does the stylopharyngeus muscle orgiinate and insert? Origin: medial side of the base of the styloid process. Insert: posterior border of the thyroid cartilage.
Where does the palatopharyngeus muscle orginate and insert? Origin: posterior border of hard palate. Insert: posterior border of thyroid cartilage and side of pharynx and esophagus
Where does the salpingopharyngeus muscle originate and insert? Origin: cartilaginous portion of eustachian tube. Inserts: fubers of stylopharyngeys and palatopharyngeus muscles on the posterior border of the thyroid cartilage.
What nerves supply the pharyngeal internal logitudinal suspensory muscles? What is the action of these muscles? Stylopharyngeus muscle is supplied by CN IX. Palatopharyngeus and salpingopharyngeus mm supplied by the pharyngeal plexus of nerves. They elevate the larynx during speaking and raise + expand pharynx during swallowing
Describe the 1st stage of deglutition (muscle movements) Voluntary, bolus is pushed from mouth into oropharynx by the movements of the tongue
Describe the 2nd stage of deglutition (muscle movements) Involuntary and rapid: constrictors and longitudunal muscles move bolus through oropharynx into laryngopharynx into esophagus; prevented from entering nasopharynx by soft palate (raised); raise hyoid and thyroid cartilages-->epiglotis closed
Describe the 3nd stage of deglutition (muscle movements) Inferior constrictor muscle pushes food into esophagus; peristaltic waves of smooth muscle continue to move bolus through GI
What are the three primary functions of the larynx? Respiratory, phonatory, reflexive and voluntary sphincteric function
What two structures is the larynx located between? Trachea and hyoid bone
Where is the upper laryngeal cavity (supraglottal region)? From the tip of the epiglottis to the vestibular folds
Where is the middle laryngeal cavity (glottal region)? From the vestibular folds to the vocal folds
Where is the lower laryngeal cavity (infraglottal region)? From the true vocal cords to the lower border of the cricoid cartilage
What is the aditus? The opening into the larynx / trachea
What is the function and location of the aryepiglottic folds? They are found laterally to the epiglottis (mucuous membranes); prevent epiglottis from folding over when asleep
Where are the arytenoid cartilages found? Inferiorly to the aryepiglottic folds; keep the opening stiff
Where are the false vocal cords located? In the vestibular region (area between the auditus and the vestibular folds)
Where are the vocal folds (true vocal colds) located? Strung between the thyroid angle and vocal processes of the arytenoid cartilage
Where are the ventricles? In the lateral space betwee the false and true vocal folds
What is the glottis? It is the narrowest space between the two true vocal folds (narrowest part of the larynx). Abduction: gets larger. Aduction: get smaller
What is the rima glottis? The medial borders of the true vocal cords
What are the (6) cartilages that make up the laryngeal skeleton? Unpaired: thyroid, cricoid, epiglotic. Paired: arytenoid, cuneiform, corniculate
Describe the major landmarks of the thyroid cartilage Laminae: flat surface where the thyroid wraps around (anteriorlateral). Laryngeal prominents: adam's apple. Thyroid angle: anterior part, helps deepen voice in males. Superior thyroid notch: superior. Superior and inferior horns/cornua (psterolateral)
Describe the shape and landmarks of the cricoid cartilage Located immediately inferior to thyroid, but anterior is narrow and posterior is broad. It is a continous (signet) ring structure. Lamina for muscle attachement is posterior. Crycothyroid and crycoarytenoid articular surface posterior
Describe the shape and function of the arytenoid cartilages Pyramidal--base: sits post-sup. surface of cricoid. Apex articulates with corniculate cart's. Vocal process: points ant. and articulates with vocal folds. Muscular process points posterior, attaches to muscles. Cartilege swivels on base to tense cords.
What is the function of the Cuneiform and corniculate cartilages? Keep the aryepiglottic folds patent
Where is the thyrohyoid membrane? What passes through it? Connects the hyoid bone and the thyroid cartilage (located anteriorly). Pierced by the superior laryngeal artery and internal laryngeal nerve.
Where is the cricotracheal membrane? Between anterior surface of the cricoid cartilage (superior) and trachea (inferior)
What membrane lines the inner part of the larynx? The intrinsic membrane. The superior part is the quadrangular membrane, the infraglottal part is named the conus elasticus)
If you were to make a cricothyrotomy, what structure would you be piercing? Where would you be located? In the space between the cricoid and the thyroid (covered by the cricothyroid membrane); it would be supraglotteal and above the thyroid gland
* * What are the extrinsic laryngeal muscles? Supra and infrahyoid muscles. Used for phonation and deglutition
* * what are the two intrinsic laryngeal muscle groups? What are the main functions of these two groups? Sphincteric (aditus and ventricular folds) and the respiratory and phonetic group (strap muscles that act on the laryngeal articulations to change the openings and length of the vocal folds).
* * What are the sphincteric muscles of the larynx? Aryepiglottic, oblique arytenoids, thyroepiglottic, and thyroarytenoid
* * What does the aryepiglottic muscle do? When it contracts, it constricts the aditus, making it smaller
* * What does the oblique arytenoid m. do? Same as the aryepiglottic muscle (make the aditus muscle smaller)
* * What does the thyroepiglottic muscle do? Makes the aditus flare out (open out)
* * What does the thyoarytenoid muscle do? Makes the aditus flare out (open out)
* * What does the posterior cricoarytenoid mucle do? Abducts the vocal folds (moves them apart)
* * What does the lateral cricoarytenoid mucle do? Adducts the vocal folds (moves them in, together)
* * What does the transverse arytenoid m. do? Adducts the vocal folds, reducing the size of the glottus
* * What does the cricothyroid muscle do? What nerve innervates it? Lengthens and tenses the vocal folds, increasing pitch (higher). External laryngeal (from CN X)-->this is the only muscle it innervates!
* * What do the tyroarytenoid m and the vocalis muscles do? They shorten and relax the vocal folds-->lower pitch (deeper)
* * What muscles are supplied by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve? It is the motor branch to the cricothyroid muscle
* * What muscles are supplied by the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve? Sensory to the upper and middle regions of the laryngeal cavity
* * What structures does the inferior (recurrent) laryngeal nerve supply? Motor to remaining intrinsic muscles (EXCEPT cricothyroid muscle!); sensory to lower laryngeal cavity (infraglottal region).
Created by: karkis77



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