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LOM Book Chapter 13

Language of Medicine Chapter 13 - Created by

acute lymphocytic leukemia Malignant, immature lymphocytes multiply in the blood, bone marrow, and lymphatic system.
acute myelogenous leukemia Malignant, immature granulocytes called myeloblasts multiply in the bone marrow and bloodstream.
albumin Protein found in blood.
anisocytosis Inequality in the size of red blood cells.
antibody Protein made by white blood cells in response to foreign substances (antigens) in the blood.
anticoagulant Substance that prevents blood clotting.
antigen Foreign agent that stimulates the production of an antibody.
antiglobulin test Test for the presence of antibodies that coat and damage erythrocytes; Coombs test.
apheresis Withdrawal and separation of blood elements.
aplastic anemia Failure of blood cell production due to aplasia (absence of formation) of bone marrow cells.
autologous transfusion Removal and then reinfusion of a patient’s own blood or blood components.
basophil White blood cell (leukocyte) containing dark granules that stain with a basic dye.
bilirubin Orange-yellow pigment found in bile. It is released from the breakdown of hemoglobin when red blood cells die.
bleeding time Time required for blood to stop flowing from a tiny puncture wound.
blood transfusion Blood cells or whole blood from a closely match donor are infused into a patient.
bone marrow biopsy Needle aspiration of a small amount of bone marrow followed by examination under a microscope.
chronic lymphocytic leukemia Malignant, but relatively mature lymphocytes, multiply in bone marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen.
chronic myelogenous leukemia Malignant, but relatively mature granulocytic leukocytes multiply in the bloodstream.
coagulation Process of blood clotting.
coagulation time Time required for venous blood to clot in a test tube.
coagulopathy Disease of blood clotting.
colony-stimulating factor Protein that stimulates the growth and proliferation of white blood cells (granulocytes).
complete blood count Determination of the number of red and white blood cells, platelets, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red cell indices (MCH, MCV, MCHC) in a sample of blood.
cytology Study of cells.
differentiation Specialization of cells from immature to mature forms.
dyscrasia Blood disease.
ecchymoses Large blue or purplish patches on the skin (bruises).
electrophoresis Technique used to separate serum proteins by electrical charge.
eosinophil White blood cell whose granules stain intensely with an acidic eosin (reddish) dye; elevated in allergic reactions.
eosinophilia Increase in numbers of eosinophils in the bloodstream.
erythroblast Immature, developing red blood cell.
erythrocyte sedimentation rate Measurement of the speed at which erythrocytes settle or fall to the bottom of a test tube.
erythrocytopenia Deficiency of red blood cells.
erythropoiesis Formation of red blood cells.
erythropoietin Substance (hormone) produced by the kidney to stimulate bone marrow to produce erythrocytes.
fibrin Protein threads that form the basis of a blood clot.
fibrinogen Plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process.
globulins Major blood proteins; immunoglobulins, alpha, beta, and gamma globulins are examples.
granulocyte White blood cell with numerous dark-staining granules; neutrophil, eosinophil, and basophil.
granulocytopenia Deficiency of granulocytes.
granulocytosis Increased numbers of granulocytes in the blood.
hematocrit Percentage of red blood cells in a given volume of blood.
hematopoiesis Formation of blood cells.
hematopoietic stem cell transplant Peripheral (found in the blood) stem cells from a compatible donor are administered into the vein of a recipient.
hemochromatosis Excessive deposits of iron throughout the body.
hemoglobin Blood protein containing iron; carries oxygen in red blood cells.
hemoglobin test Total amount of hemoglobin in a sample of blood.
hemoglobinopathy Disease or defect of hemoglobin production. Sickle cell anemia is an example.
hemolysis Destruction or breakdown of blood; specifically red blood cells.
hemolytic anemia Reduction in erythrocytes due to excessive destruction of red blood cells.
hemophilia Hereditary disease of blood clotting failure with abnormal bleeding. Affected individuals are lacking a blood clotting factor (factor VIII or factor IX).
hemostasis Stoppage of bleeding or circulation of blood.
heparin Anticoagulant found in blood and tissues.
hypochromic Pertaining to deficiency in color; decrease in hemoglobin in red blood cells.
immune system Response of the immune system to foreign invasion.
Immunoglobulin Antibody-containing protein in the blood; IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE.
intrinsic factor Substance normally found in gastric (stomach) juice that helps absorption of vitamin B12 into the bloodstream.
leukapheresis Mechanical separation of white blood cells from the rest of the blood.
leukocyte White blood cell.
leukocytopenia Deficiency of white blood cells.
lymphocyte White blood cell with a single nucleus (mononuclear); capable of producing antibodies.
macrocytosis Presence of large red blood cells in the blood.
macrophage Large phagocytic cell migrating from the blood into tissues.
megakaryocyte Large, giant cell with a big nucleus; platelet precursor found in the bone marrow.
macrocytosis Increased numbers of smaller than normal red blood cells.
monoblast Immature monocyte.
monocyte White blood cell (agranulocyte) with one large nucleus; enter tissues as macrophages.
mononuclear Pertaining to a white blood cell with a single, round nucleus; monocyte or lymphocyte.
mononucleosis Infectious disease marked by increased numbers of leukocytes and enlarged cervical lymph nodes.
morphology Study of the shape and form of cells, particularly red blood cells.
multiple myeloma Malignant tumor of bone marrow; overproduction of immunoglobulins and destruction of bone tissue.
myeloblast Immature granulocytic while blood cell; a cell normally only found in the bone marrow.
myelogenous Pertaining to cells produced in the bone marrow.
myeloid Derived from bone marrow.
myelopoiesis Formation and development of bone marrow or cells that originate from it.
neutropenia Deficiency of neutrophils.
neutrophil White blood cell with dark granules that stain with a neutral dye; phagocyte formed in the bone marrow and the body’s first line of defense against disease.
neutrophilia Increased numbers of neutrophils.
palliative Relieving, but not curing illness.
pancytopenia Deficiency of all (blood) cells.
partial thromboplastin time Measurement of presence of plasma factors that act in a portion of the coagulation pathway.
pernicious anemia Lack of mature erythrocytes caused by inability to absorb vitamin B12 into the body.
petechiae Small, pinpoint hemorrhages caused by bleeding under the skin.
phagocyte Cell that engulfs another cell or foreign organism and destroys it.
plasma Liquid portion of blood containing proteins, water, salts, nutrients, hormones, and vitamins.
plasmapheresis Removal of plasma from withdrawn blood by centrifuge.
platelet Clotting cell or thrombocyte.
platelet count Number of platelets per cubic millimeter (mm3) or microliter (mL) of blood.
plateletpheresis Separation of platelets from the rest of the blood.
poikilocytosis Variation in the shape of red blood cells.
polycythemia vera Increase in numbers of red blood cells (erythremia).
polymorphonuclear Pertaining to a multi-lobed nucleus (in granulocytic white blood cells).
prothrombin Plasma protein converted to thrombin in the clotting process.
prothrombin time Test of the ability of blood to clot.
purpura Multiple pinpoint hemorrhages and accumulation of blood under the skin caused by deficiency of clotting cells (platelets).
red blood cell count Number of erythrocytes per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood.
red blood cell morphology Microscopic examination of a stained blood smear to determine the shape of individual red blood cells.
relapse Return of symptoms of disease.
remission Disappearance of symptoms of disease.
reticulocyte Immature erythrocyte with a network of strands (reticulum).
Rh factor Antigen (protein) on red blood cells of Rh positive individuals.
serum Plasma minus clotting proteins (prothrombin and fibrinogen) and clotting cells.
sickle cell anemia Hereditary condition marked by abnormal sickle shape of erythrocytes and by hemolysis.
sideropenia Deficiency of iron in the blood.
spherocytosis Increase in numbers of sphere-shaped red blood cells, as in a type of anemia (hemolytic anemia).
stem cell Unspecialized cell that gives rise to all forms of specialized cells in the body. Hematopoietic stem cells are found in the bone marrow and lead to the development of all types of blood cells.
thalassemia Inherited defect in the ability to produce hemoglobin, usually seen in persons of Mediterranean background.
thrombin Enzyme necessary for blood clotting (converts fibrinogen to fibrin in the clotting process).
thrombocyte Platelet; clotting cell.
thrombocytopenia Deficiency of clotting cells.
thrombolytic therapy Treatment with drugs to break down clots that may abnormally form in blood vessels.
thrombosis Condition of clot formation.
white blood cell count Number of leukocytes per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood.
white blood cell differential Percentage of the total white blood cell count made up by different types of leukocytes.
Created by: mtathome
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