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ap marieb ch24

Anat and phys Marieb chap 24 nutrition

A ________ is a substance in food that promotes normal growth, maintenance, and repair Nutrient
Name 5 nutrients carbohydrates lipids proteins vitamins minerals
Essential fatty acids _____ and ____ are found in most vegetable oils Linoleic and linolenic acid
____ are the major fuel of hepatocytes and skeletal muscle lipids
______ help with smooth muscle contraction, control of blood pressure and inflammation prostaglandins
________ stabilizes membranes and is a precursor of bile salts and steroid hormones cholesterol
All-or-none rule All amino acids needed must be present for protein synthesis to occur
______ will be used as fuel if there is insufficient carbohydrate or fat available Protein
_________ is a state where the rate of protein synthesis equals the rate of breakdown and loss Nitrogen balance
Nitrogen balance is ______ if synthesis exceeds breakdown positive
Most vitamins function as _______ coenzymes
Three vitamins that are synthesized in the body D B K
Two water soluble vitamins C B
Four fat soluble vitamins A D E K
Vitamins _ _ _ are antioxidants A C E
Name the seven minerals required in moderate amounts Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chloride, and magnesium
______, ______ and __________ salts harden bone calcium, phosphorus, magnesium
_____ is essential for oxygen binding to hemoglobin Iron
_________ is necessary for thyroid hormone synthesis Iodine
_______ and ______ are major electrolytes in the blood Sodium and chloride
________ is synthesis of large molecules from small ones Anabolism
_________ is hydrolysis of complex structures to simpler ones Catabolism
In ______________ food fuels are broken down in cells and some of the energy released is captured to form ATP cellular respiration
_____ is the shifting of phosphate groups to other molecules phosphrylation
Three stages of processing nutrients Digestion, absorption and transportation to tissues, cellular processing, oxidative breakdown of intermediates into CO2 , water, and ATP
________ is the gain of oxygen or loss of hydrogen Oxidation
_________ substances lose electrons and energy Oxidized
________ substances gain electrons and energy Reduced
________ act as hydrogen (or electron) acceptors Coenzymes
Two types of coenzymes in Redox reactions Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)
Name two mechanisms of ATP synthesis Substrate-level phosphorylation, Oxidative phosphorylation
In _________ high-energy phosphate groups directly transferred from phosphorylated substrates to ADP Substrate-Level Phosphorylation
Substrate-Level Phosphorylation occurs in _____ and ______ glycolysis and the Krebs cycle
________ occurs in the mitochondria Oxidative Phosphorylation
Oxidative Phosphorylatation is carried out by _______ proteins electron transport
__________ is used to create H+ gradient across mitochondrial membrane Nutrient energy
Name three ways glucose is catabolized Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation
Oxidation of glucose releases ____ ATP 36
____ is a ten step pathway and is ______ and occurs in the _____ 10, anaerobic, cytosol
Glucose creates 2 _______ pyruvic acid molecules
Name the three major phases of glycolysis sugar activation, sugar cleavage, sugar oxidation and ATP formation
Final products of glycolysis are 2 pyruvic acid 2 NADH + H+ (reduced NAD+) Net gain of 2 ATP
Krebs Cycle occurs in ________ mitochondrial matrix
The ________ is fueled by pyruvic acid and fatty acids Krebs Cycle
Each ______ is converted to acetyl CoA pyruvic acid
Coenzyme A shuttles ______ to an enzyme of the Krebs cycle acetic acid
Each acetic acid is decarboxylated and oxidized, generating ____ 3 NADH + H+, 1 FADH2, 2 CO2, 1 ATP
_____and ____ are part of metabolism that directly uses oxygen Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation
In Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation hydrogen atoms are split into _________ H+ and electrons
In Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation H+ diffuses back to the matrix via _____ ATP synthase
________ uses released energy to make ATP ATP synthase
In ______________ electrons are delivered to O, forming O– and O– attracts H+ to form H2O Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation
________ works like an ion pump in reverse ATP synthase
__________ is when glycogen is formed when glucose supplies exceed need for ATP synthesis Glycogenesis
___________ is when glycogen breakdowns in response to low blood glucose Glycogenolysis
Gluconeogenesis forms glucose from noncarbohydrate molecules and occurs mainly in the _____ liver
In lipid metabolism only ________ are routinely oxidized for energy triglycerides
Triglyceride synthesis occurs when cellular ____ and ____ levels are high atp, glucose
______ is necessary for complete oxidation of fat Oxaloacetic acid
___________ couple the movement of substances across membranes to chemical reactions chemiosmotic processes
_____ is reactions that together complete the oxidation of glucose, yielding C)2, H2O and ATP cellular respiration
____ is the conversion of glucose to pyruvic acid glycolysis
____ is the polymerization of glucose to form glycogen glycogenesis
_______ is the hydrolysis of glycogen to glucose monomers glycogenolysis
____ is the formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors gluconeogenesis
________ is the energy yielding reactions that split H removed during oxidations to H+ and e- and create a proton gradient used to bond ADP to Pi forming ATP electron transport chain
____ is the conversion of fatty acids to acetyl CoA beta oxidation
_____ is the breakdown of lipids to fatty acids and glycerol lipolysis
_______ is the formation of lipids from acetyl CoA and glyceraldehyde phosphate lipogenesis
______ is the transfer of an amine group from an amino acid to an alpha-ketoglutaric acid, thereby transforming alpha-ketoglutaric acid into glutamic acid transamination
_________ is the removal of an amine group from glutamic acid as ammonia and regeneration of alpha-ketoglutaric acid oxidative deamination
Fats and carbohydrates are oxidized directly to create fuel T/F T
______ can be used to supply energy only after being converted into a carbohydrate intermediate amino acids
When dietary protein is in excess, amino acids are ______ Oxidized for energy , Converted into fat for storage
Protein synthesis is ______ controlled hormonally
Name the three interconvertible nutrient pools amino acids, carbohydrates, fats
The amino acid pool is the body’s ____ supply of free amino acids total
The amino acid pool is used to _______ and for ________ resynthesizing body proteins and gluconeogenesis
Carbohydrate and fat pools are easily interconverted through ______ key intermediates
During the _______ absorption of nutrients is occurring absorptive state
During the _______ energy sources are supplied by breakdown of reserves postabsorptive state
During the absorptive state _____ exceeds ______ anabolism, catabolism
_____ are used by adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal and cardiac muscle as a primary energy source Triglycerides
During the absorptive state most _______ are used in protein synthesis amino acids
_______ enhances glucose oxidation and glycogen and triglyceride formation insulin
During the postabsorptive state _____ of fat, glycogen, and proteins exceeds ______ catabolism, anabolism
_________in the liver, ______ in skeletal muscle, _______ in adipose tissues and the liver, and ______ of cellular protein are sources of blood glucose Glycogenolysis, Glycogenolysis, Lipolysis, catabolism
During the postabsorptive state glucagon release is stimulated by ______ and _____ declining blood glucose and rising amino acid levels
______ process nearly every class of nutrient hepatocytes
Name 4 types of lipoproteins HDL LDL VLDL Chylomicrons
______ Transport triglycerides to peripheral tissues (mostly adipose) VLDLs
_______ Transport cholesterol to peripheral tissues for membranes, storage, or hormone synthesis LDLs
_______ Transport excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver to be broken down and secreted into bile HDLs
High levels of ______ are thought to protect against heart attack HDL
High levels of _____ increase the risk of heart attack LDL
_______ trans fats increase LDLs and reduce HDLs trans fats
Unsaturated __________ (found in cold-water fish) lower the proportions of saturated fats and cholesterol, have antiarrhythmic effects on the heart, help prevent spontaneous clotting and lower blood pressure omega-3 fatty acids
_____ energy cannot be used to do work heat
The two sets of hypothalamic neurons are LHA and VMN
_____ neurons promote hunger when stimulated by neuropeptides (e.g., NPY) LHA
______ neurons cause satiety through release of CRH when stimulated by appetite-suppressing peptides (e.g., POMC and CART peptides) VMN
Short term regulation of food intake is handled by _____, _____ and ________ neural signals nutrient signals, hormone signals
Examples of neural signals in short term regulation of food intake are _____ high protein and distention
Examples of nutrient signals in short term regulation of food intake are ______ blood glucose, amino acids, fatty acids
Examples of hormone signals in short term regulation of food intake are ______ gut hormones (cck and insulin), glucagon and epinephrine, Ghr
The primary long term regulation of food intake is controlled by ________ leptin
Leptin is a _______ secreted by fat cells indicating total energy stores in fat tissue hormone
Leptin acts on the ARC neurons in the _____________ hypothalamus
Leptin suppresses ____ and stimulates ______ NPY (appetite stimulant), CART peptides (appetite suppressants)
_____ is the total heat produced by chemical reactions and mechanical work of the body metabolic rate
_____ Reflects the energy the body needs to perform its most essential activities basal metabolic rate BMR
______ Rate of kilocalorie consumption to fuel all ongoing activities total metabolic rate TMR
_______ reflects the balance between heat production and heat loss Body temperature
______ temperature denatures proteins and depresses neurons Increased
________ temperature remains relatively constant, while ______ temperature fluctuates substantially core, shell
Name the four mechanisms of heat exchange radiation, conduction, convection, evaporation
_______ is the loss of heat in the form of infrared rays Radiation
______ is the transfer of heat by direct contact Conduction
______ is the transfer of heat to the surrounding air Convection
______ is the heat loss due to the evaporation of water from body surfaces Evaporation
Name the two thermoregulatory centers of the hypothalamus heat loss center, heat promoting center
Name the four involuntary heat promoting mechanisms Constriction of cutaneous blood vessels, Shivering, Increased metabolic rate via epinephrine and norepinephrine, Enhanced thyroxine release
______ is when elevated body temperature depresses the hypothalamus, Positive-feedback mechanism (heat stroke) begins at core temperature of 41C, and can be fatal if not corrected Hyperthermia
________ is when heat-associated collapse after vigorous exercise, due to dehydration and low blood pressure, heat-loss mechanisms are still functional and may progress to heat stroke, Heat exhaustion
________ is when body temperature and vital signs decrease and shivering stops at core temperature of 30 - 32C which can progress to coma a death by cardiac arrest at ~ 21C Hypothermia
_____ is controlled hyperthermia due to infection (also cancer, allergies, or CNS injuries). Macrophages release interleukins (“pyrogens”) that cause the release of prostaglandins from the hypothalamus fever
Created by: hkrawietz



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