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Abdomen Wall

Abdominal wall notes

QuestionAnswer
* At what veterbral level does the umbilicus lie between (in fit humans)? Between L3 and L4
What is the linea alba? It is a white line that occurs in the middle plane on the anterior abdominal wall; divides the body into halves
Where is the linea semilunaris? Runs from the pubic tubercle up towards the 9th intercostal cartilage; marks the lateral edge of the rectus abdominis
Where is the inguinal ligament? What is it? It stretches from the anterior superior iliac spine to the pubic tubercle; it's the part of the external abdominal oblique that folds under itself
What are the two layers of the fascia of the anterior abdomen wall The superficial fascia and the deep fascia
What is the superficial fascia subdivided into? The fatty (Camper's) fascia and the membranous (Scarpa's) fascia
The _____ Fascia is the investing fascia on the muscle. Deep
What are the points of insertion of the External Abdominal Oblique Muscle? Iliac crest, linea alba (via aponeurosis)
At what point does the external aobdominal oblique muscle become fascia? (landmark) Midclavicular line
The external oblique muscle turns under in the area between the anterior superior ilac spine and the pubic tubercle to form the ______ _________ inguinal ligament
The inquinal ligament stretches from the ___________ to the _________ tubercle anterior superior iliac spine, pubic
From the pubic tubercle, an extension of the inguinal ligament sweeps posteriorly and laterally along the pectineal line to form the __________ ligament and the _______ ligaments lacunar, pectineal
The ____________ ligament extends from the pubic tubercle towards the linea alba. This ligament courses _______ and __________, deep to the fibers of the external oblique muscle and interlocks with the ________ ligament from the opposite side of the body. reflected, superiorly and medially, reflected ligament
What is the opening in the aponeurotic tendon of the external oblique muscle called? Where is it located? The superficial inguinal ring; above the and lateral to the pubic tubercle
The edges of the superficial inguinal ring are reinforced by fibers termed _________ and ___________, located on either side of the rib, and the _________ fibers, located superior to the ring. Medial and lateral crura; intercrurial
What important structure is the superficial ring the opening of? The inguinal canal
What + where is the external spermatic fascia? It is an extension of the abdominal oblique aponeurosis that forms a covering of the spermatic cord and the testes
What muscle is associated with the conjoint tendon and the cremaster muscle + fascia? The internal abdominal oblique
Which direction do the fibers of the external abdominal oblique run? Run from inferiorly from posterior to anterior (hands in pockets down and in)
What are the borders of the internal abdominal oblique? Arise from the thoraco lumbar fascia anterior 2/3 of the iliac crest and from the lateral 2/3 of the inguinal ligament
The fibers of the internal oblique muscle join with the lower part of the transverse abdominal oblique to form the _________ conjoint tendons
The cojoined tendon is deep to the __________ reflected ligament
A bundle of fibers from the internal oblique joins the spermatic cord and forms the ___________ muscle and fascia covering the ________ and the ________ cremaster; cord and testis
Where is the trasnversus abdominal muscle? It is located in the same territory deep to the internal oblique muscle
The lower fibers of the transversus abdominal muscle are fused with the internal abdominal oblique muscle to form the _______ conjoint tendon
Where is the rectus abdominus muscle located? The lateral borders are 2 inches from the midline; it lies deep to the aponeurotic tendons; it stetches from the pubic symphisis to the costal arch
The rectus abdominis muscle has __________, fibrous bands, running horizontally across the muscle which divide the muscle into sections Tendinous intersections
Where are the tendinous intersections located? umbilicus, inferior end of the xiphoid process, equidistant from the umbilicus and xiphoid process, and between the umbilicus and the pubis
The lateral border of the rectus muscle demarcates the ___________ linea semilunaris
The rectus abdominus is enclosed by a sheath formed by the apponeurosis of the _____, _____, and ______ abdominal oblique muscles. This sheath is called the ________ sheath. external, internal, transverse, rectus
What causes the difference in posterior wall covering of the rectus sheath? Due to the manner of formation of the rectus sheath by the tendons of the external, internal, and transversus abdominis muscles
What two muscles are contained by the rectus sheath? The rectus abdomnins and the pyramidalis
Which muscle forms the anterior wall over the entire length of the rectus abdominis? The external abdominal oblique
The ______________ splits at the lateral edge of the rectus muscle and one lamina fuses with the _________ oblique to form the anterior wall of the rectus sheath. Internal oblique aponeurosis; external
Where do the aponeurosis of the three muscles insert into? the linea alba
* At what point are both layers of the internal oblique aponeurosis found on the anterior surface of the rectus muscle? Halfway between the umbilicus and the pubic crest
Where does the transversus abdominis muscle course anterior to the rectus abdominis? Halfway between the umbilicus and the pubic crest
Describe the borders of the posterior wall of the rectus sheath It is complete only to the point 1/2 between the umbilicus and the pubic crest; it is absent bellow that line
The point at which the fibers of all three muscles go anterior to the rectus abdominis is termed the ________ line Arcuate
The arcuate line of the abdominis demarcates what two things? The lower limit of the posterior layer of the rectus sheath; where the inferior epigastric vessels perforate the rectus abdominus
_________ to the arcuate line, the ________ aponeurosis splits to envelope the rectus abdominis muscle. _______ to the arcuate line, the ______ and the ________ aponeuroses merge and pass _________ to the rectus muscle Superior, internal oblique, inferior, internal oblique, transversus abdominis, superficial
Describe the layers of muscle and aponeurosis inferior to the arcuate line Inferior, all three muscle aponeuroses make up the rectus sheath that is now only anterio to the rectus abdominis and not posterior to this muscle; the rectus abdominis rests directly on the transversalis fascia
What is the pyramidalis muscle? Where is it? Where do its fibers run through? What does it do? Small triangular muscle; from the pubic crest to the linea alba (in 20% of humans); in the rectus sheath anterior to the rectus abdominis muscle; tightens the linea alba
What is the transversalis fascia? A thin aponeurotic membrane which lies between the inner surface of the transversus and the extraparitoneal fat
The __________ ring is formed within the transversalis fascia Deep inguinal
What are the major functions of the muscles of muscles of the abdominal wall? Flex the trunk, increase intra-abdominal pressure (defacation, urination, parturition), stabilize pelvis on trunk during walking
What are the nerves innervating the abdominal body wall (4)? Ventral primary rami, iliohypogastric n., illioinguinal nerves, subcostal nerve
What are the arteries supplying the abdominal body wall? Deep circumflex iliac arteries, inferior and superior epigastric arteries, posterior intercostal arteries, subcostal arteries, lumbar arteries, superficial inferior epigastric arteries, musculophrenic arteries
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Created by: karkis77