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ap marieb ch23 pt1

Anat and phys Marieb chap 23 digestive system part 1

Name two groups of digestive organs Alimentary and accessory
Name function of alimentary canal digests and absorbs food
Name parts of alimentary canal oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine
Name parts of accessory organs Teeth, tongue, gallbladder Digestive glands -Salivary glands,Liver,pancreas
Six essential activities of the digestive processes 1. Ingestion 2. Propulsion 3. Mechanical digestion 4. Chemical digestion 5. Absorption 6. Defecation
Name four GI tract regulatory mechanisms Mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors Intrinsic and extrinsic controls
Functions of mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors Respond to stretch, changes in osmolarity and pH, and presence of substrate and end products of digestion Initiate reflexes that activate or inhibit digestive glands stimulate smooth muscle to mix and move lumen contents
Functions of Intrinsic and extrinsic controls Enteric nerve plexuses (gut brain) initiate short reflexes in response to stimuli in the GI tract Long reflexes in response to stimuli inside or outside the GI tract involve CNS centers and autonomic nerves
Enteric nerve plexuses (gut brain) initiate _______ in response to stimuli in the GI tract short reflexes
Long reflexes respond to ________ and involve the ______ and _____ stimuli inside or outside the GI tract CNS centers and Autonomic nerves
________ peritoneum on external surface of most digestive organs Visceral
________ peritoneum lines the body wall Parietal
__________ is between the two peritoneums and lubricates mobile organs Peritoneal cavity
_________ is a double layer of peritoneum Mesentery
Funtions of mesentery Routes for blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves Holds organs in place and stores fat
________ organs lie posterior to the peritoneum Retroperitoneal
__________ organs are surrounded by the peritoneum Intraperitoneal
Four basic layers (tunics) of alimentary canal Mucosa Submucosa Muscularis externa Serosa
Layers of alimentary canal from inside out lumen, mucosa( epithelium, lamina propia, muscularis mucosa), submucosa, muscularis externa (circular and longitudinal), serosa (connective tissue and epithelium), mysentery
Mucosa Functions Secretes mucus, digestive enzymes and hormones Absorbs end products of digestion Protects against infectious disease
Three sublayers of mucosa epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae
Mucosa Epithelium Simple columnar epithelium and mucus-secreting cells which protects digestive organs from enzymes, eases food passage. May secrete enzymes and hormones
Mucosa Lamina propria Loose areolar connective tissue, capillaries for nourishment and absorption, lymphoid follicles (part of MALT)
Muscularis mucosae smooth muscle that produces local movements of mucosa
Submucosa Dense connective tissue Blood and lymphatic vessels, lymphoid follicles, and submucosal nerve plexus
Muscularis externa Responsible for segmentation and peristalsis Inner circular and outer longitudinal layers
Serosa around organs Visceral peritoneum
Visceral peritoneum is replaced by the _____ in the esophagus fibrous adventitia
Retroperitoneal organs have both an ____ and ______ adventitia and serosa
Intrinsic nerve supply of the alimentary canal is composed of the ____ and the ______ Submucosal nerve plexus and Myenteric nerve plexus
Function of the submucosal nerve plexus Regulates glands and smooth muscle in the mucosa
Function of the myenteric nerve plexus Controls GI tract motility
The Enteric Nervous System is linked to the CNS via ____ ____ ____ afferent visceral fibers
____ ANS fibers synapse with enteric plexuses Long
________ impulses inhibit secretion and motility in the enteric nervous system Sympathetic
_______ impulses stimulate the mouth in the enteric nervous system Parasympathetic
The mouth is lined with _____ stratified squamous epithelium
The soft palate is formed mostly of ______ skeletal muscle
The soft palate closes off the _____ during swallowing nasopharynx
Functions of the tongue include Repositioning and mixing food during chewing, formation of the bolus, initiation of swallowing, speech, and taste
____ muscles change the shape of the tongue Intrinsic
_____ muscles alter the tongue’s position Extrinsic
Surfaces of tongue filiform fungiform circumvallate foliate terminal sulcus
Filiform whitish, give the tongue roughness and provide friction
Fungiform reddish, scattered over the tongue
Circumvallate (vallate) V-shaped row in back of tongue
These three house taste buds filiform fungiform circumvallate
Where are the foliate on the lateral aspects of the posterior tongue
Terminal sulcus marks the division between_____ circumvallate and linguinal tonsil
3 Extrinsic Salivary Glands parotid, submandibular, and sublingual
Saliva secretion function Cleanses the mouth Moistens and dissolves food chemicals Aids in bolus formation Contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of starch
_____ salivary glands continuously keep the mouth moist Intrinsic
______ salivary glands produce secretions when ingested food stimulates chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors in the mouth Extrinsic
Salivatory nuclei in the brain stem send impulses along _____ fibers in cranial nerves VII and IX parasympathetic
Strong ____ stimulation inhibits salivation and results in dry mouth (xerostomia) sympathetic
___ deciduous teeth erupt (6–24 months of age) 20
__ permanent teeth 32
4 Classes of Teeth Incisors, Canines, Premolars (bicuspids) and molars
Translate this dental formula - 2I,1C, 2PM, 3M 2 incisors 2 premolars 3 molars
Parts of Tooth Structure crown, root, cementum, periodontal ligament, gingival sulcus, dentin, pulp cavity, pul, root canal
Crown Exposed part above gum
Root Portion embedded in the jawbone and connected to crown by neck
Cementum Calcified connective tissue
Periodontal ligament Forms fibrous joint
Gingival sulcus Groove where gingiva borders the tooth
Dentin Bonelike material under enamel
Pulp cavity Cavity surrounded by dentin
Pulp Connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerves
Root canal Extends from pulp cavity to the apical foramen of the root
Adventitia outermost layers or covering of some organs
Bolus round mass of food prepared by mouth for swallowing
Deglutition swallowing
Created by: hkrawietz



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