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anatomy study of structure of body parts and their relationship to one another
physiology study of function of body's structural machinery
regional all structures in 1 part of body(such as abdomen or leg)
systemic gross anatomy of body studied by system
surface study of internal structures asd they relate to overlying skin
cytology study of cell
histology study of tissues
developmental anatomy traces structural changes throughout life
embryology study of developmental changes of body before birth
pathological anatomy study of structural changes caused by disease
radiographic anatomy study of internal structures visualized by Xray
molecular biology study of anatomical structures at a subcellular level
physiology considers operation of specific organ systems
renal kidney function
neurophysiology workings of nervous system
cardiovascular operation of heart and blood vessels
chemical atoms combine to form molecules
cellular cells are made of molecules
tissue consists of similar types of cells
organ made up of diff types of tissues
organ system consists of diff organs that work closely together
organismal made up of organ systems
integumentary system forms external body covering
integumentary system2 composed of skin,sweat glands, oil glands,hair, and nails
integumentary system3 protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vitamin D
skeletal system composed of bone, cartilage, and ligaments
skeletal system2 protects and supports body organs
skeletal system3 provides framework for muscles
skeletal system4 site of blood cell formation and stores minerals
muscular system composed of muscle and tendons
muscular system2 allows mainpulation of envir.,locomotion, and facial expression
muscular system3 maintains posture and produces heat
nervous system composed of brain,spinal column, and nerves
nervous system2 is fast-acting control system of body
nervous system3 responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands
cardiovascular system composed of heart and blood vessels
cardiovascular system2 heart pumps blood
cardiovascular system3 blood vessels transport blood throughout
lymphatic system composed of red bone marrow, thymus, spleen,lymph nodes, and lympathic vessels
lymphatic system2 picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood
lymphatic system3 disposes of debris in the lyphatic stream and houses white blood cells involved with immunity
Respiratory system composed of nasal cavity,pharynx,trachea,bronchi ,and lungs
respiratory system2 keeps blood supplied with oxygen and remove CO2
digestive system composed of oral cavity,esophagus,stomach,small intestine,large intestine,rectum,anus,and liver
digestive system2 breaks down food into absorbable units that enter blood
digestive system3 eliminates idegstible foodstuffs as feces
urinary system composed of kidneys,ureters,urinary bladder,and urethra
urinary system2 eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body
urinary system3 regulates water,electrolyte,and pH balance of blood
male reproductive system composed of prostate gland,penis,testtes,scrotum,and ductus deferems
male reproductive system2 main function is production of offspring
male reproductive system3 testes produce sperm and male sex hormones
male reproductive system4 ducts and glands deliver sperm to the female reproductive tract
female reproductive system composed of mummary glands,ovaries,uterine tubes,uterus,and vagina
female reproductive system2 main function= production of offspring
female reproductive system3 ovaries produce eggs and female hormones
female reproductive system4 remaining structures serve as sites for fertilization and dev. of fetus
female reproductive system5 mammary glands produce milk to nourish newborn
maintaing boundaries the internal envir. remains distinct from external
cellular level(maintaining boundaries) accomplish by plasma membranes
organismal level(maintaining boundaries) accomplish by skin
movement locomotion, propulsion(peristalsis), and contractility
responsiveness ability to sense changes in envir. and respond to them
digestion breakdown of ingested foodstuffs
metabolism all cjem reactions that occur in body
excretion removal of wastes from body
cellular(reproduction) original cell divides and produce 2 identical daughter cells
organismal(reproduction) sperm and egg unite to make a whole new person
growth increase in size of body part or organism
nutrients chem substance used for energy and cell building
oxygen needed for metabolic reactions
water provides necessary envir for chem reactions
maintaining normal body temp necessary for chem reactions to occur at life sustaining rates
atomspheric pressure require for proper breathing and gas exchange in lungs
homeostasis ability to maintain a relatively stab;e internal envir in an ever-changing outside world
receptor monitors envir.s and responds to changes(stimuli)
control center determines set point at which variable is maintained
effector provides means to respond to stimulus
neg feedback system output shuts off original stimulus
pos feedback system output enhances or exaggerates original stimulus
superior and inferior toward and away from head,respectively
anterior and posterior toward front and back of body
medial,lateral,and intermediate toward midline, away from midline, and b/t more medial and lateral structure
proximal and dismal closer to and farther from origin of body
superficial and deep toward and away from body surface
axial head,neck,and trunk
appendiculare appendages or limbs
sagittal divides body into right and left parts
midagittal or medial sagittal plane that lies on midline
frontal or coronal divides body into anterior and inferior parts
transverse or horizontal cross section, divides body into superiot and inferior parts
oblique section cuts made diagonally
dorsal cavity protects nervous system and is divided into 2 subdivisions
cranial cavity within skull and encases brain
vertebral cavity runs within vertebral column and encases spinal cord
ventral cavity houses internal organs(viscera) and is divided into subdivisions: thoraic and abdominopelvic
thoraic cavity subdivided into pleural cavitites, mediastinum, and pericardial cavity
pleural cavitites each houses a lung
mediastinum contains pericardial cavity and surrounds remaining thoraic organs
pericardial cavity encloses heart
abdominopelvic cavity seperated from superior thoraic cavity by dome shaped diaphragm
abdominal cavity contains stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs
pelvic cavity lies within pelvis and contains bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum
parietal serosa lines internal body walls
visceral serosa covers internal organs
serous fluid separates serosae
oral and digestive mouth and cavities of digestive organs
nasal located within and posterior to nose
orbital house eyes
middle ear contains bones(ossicles) that transmit sound vibrations
synovial joint cavities
Created by: NightKhaki