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Neck osteology, head & neck arthrology

Vertebral foramen Accommodates cervical portion of spinal cord
Transverse processes & foramen -- are anterior and lateralward and end in a flattened posterior tubercle. -- perforates #1. Houses vertebral artery
Vertebra promines 1st SP you can palpate
Zygapophyseal joints Synovial joints between articular processes
Atlantoaxial joints Bilateral gliding joints between surfaces of articular processes of atlas & axis & medial pivot joint between dens of axis and anterior arch of atlas
Atlantooccipital joint Synovial joint formed between convex occipital condyles and the concave superior articular facets of atlas.
Articular capsule Encloses atlantooccipital joint
Accessory ligaments Unite the laminae, transverse processes, and spinous processes
Supraspinous ligament Band of longitudinal fibers connecting tips of spinous processes from C7 to sacrum continuous with interspinal lig. and nuchal lig. above
Interspinous ligament Thin membranous band which unites adjacent SPs and extends from supraspinous lig to ligamentum flavum.
Nuchal ligament Triangular, medial, sheet-like upward extension of supraspinous ligament which attaches above to external occipital protuberance and med. nuchal line of occipital bone.
Ligamentum flavum Strong, elastic ligaments which connect laminae of adjacent vertebrae.
Posterior longitudinal ligament In vertebral canal on post border of vertebral bodies. Attached above to occipital bone.
Tectorial membrane Covers dens & its ligaments within vertebral canal and is upward extension of PLL
Transverse ligament (of atlas) Arches from side to side behind dens attaching to small tubercle on med aspect of lat masses of atlas. Thick and strong.
Cruciform ligament From middle of transverse lig a small band (sup crus) passes upward to ant edge of foramen magnum and another (inf crus) passes downward to back of body of axis.
Alar ligaments Short. Arise on either side of apex of dens. Pass upward & lateralward to med aspect of each occipital condyle
Apical ligament of dens Median slender band. Arises from apex of dens and attaches ant margin of foramen magnum
Anterior longitudinal ligament broad. extends along ant surfaces of bodies of vertebrae binding them together. Opening for vertebral artery. Does not reach skull
Posterior atlantooccipital ligament Connected above to post margin of foramen magnum & below to upper border of posterior arch of atlas. Reaches articular capsules on each side
Anterior atlantooccipital ligament Densely woven fibers which pass from upper border of ant arch of atlas to ant margin of foramen magnum. Continuous lat with articular capsules
Anterior atlantoaxial ligament Strong. Between ant arch of atlas & from of body of axis between lat joints
Posterior atlantoaxial ligament Broad. Thin. Between the inferior border posterior arch of atlas and superior edge of laminae of axis. Continuous with ligamentum flavum.
Movement of cervical portion of vertebrae column (where, what) Take place at IV disks & zygapophyseal joints. Flexion, extension, lateral bending & rotation
Atlantoaxial joint (movement) Moves face from side to side
Alar ligament (movement) Chief check ligaments in the rotatory movement
Atlantooccipital joint (movement) Flexion & extention (nodding head forward and back) and lat bending. No rotary movement.
Temporomandibular joint (type) Hinge and gliding synovial joint. Only freely moveable joint in skull.
Temporomandibular joint (movements) Elevation, depression, protraction, retraction, lat excursion of mandible
Temporomandibular joint stability (5) Lateral lig, capsule, sphenomandibular lig, stylomandibular lig, articular disk
Lateral ligament Capsule contains one strengthening lig. Strengthens joint laterally. Attaches to lower border of zygomatic arch and tubercle above. Fibers directed down and back to attach to lat and post parts of neck of condyle
Capsule Thin and loose. Attached above to circumferences of mandibular fossa and articular tubercle and below to neck of condyle
Sphenomandibular ligament Medial to capsule. Accessory ligament. Thin, flat, strong. Descends from spine of sphenoid to lingula of mandible.
Stylomandibular ligament Medial to capsule. Accessory ligament. Apex of styloid process to post border of ramus of mandible near angle
Articular disk Divides joint into 2 synovial cavities. Dense fibrous CT. Upper surface concavoconvex to fit into mandibular fossa and articular tubercle. Under surface concavce to receive mandibular condyle
Created by: Rungladwin