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exam3 RespSYS

QuestionAnswer
breathing consists of what 2 things inspiration and expiration
resp pressure is stated in terms of what kind of pressure. what is this number? atmospheric pressure...760mmHg
positive pressures are lower and negative pressures are highter. T or F? False. positive pressures are higher and negative pressures are lower
what is intrapulmonary pressure? pressure in the alveoli
pressure in the alveoli is called what? intrapulmonary pressure
pressure in the pleural space is called what? intrapleural pressure
what is intrapleural pressure? pressure in the pleural space
intrapleural pressure is usally how much lower than intrapulmonary pressure 4 mmHg
intrapleural pressure is higher than intrapulmonary pressure. T or F false..intrapleural pressure is lower
why or how is intrapleural pressure lower than intrapulmonary pressure due to elasticity of the lung and surface tension of the alveoli
pleural fluid is reabsorbed or secreted? reabsorbed
pleural fluid is reabsorbed by what? the lymphatics
the lymphatics reabsorb what? pleural fluid
collapse of the alveoli is called what? atelectasis
what is atelectasis collapse of the alveoli
collapse of the alveoli-aka atelectasis is cause by several things. T or F TRUE
what is it called when there is an opening in the pleura and air in the pleural space causing the lung to collapse pneumothorax
what is pneumothorax opening in the pleural and air in the pleural space. causes the lungs to collapse
T or F...the air in the pleural space of the left lung lung causes the right lung to collapse false-R and l are separate pleural spaces
does volume cause pressure change and movement of air? yes
what causes movement of air volume change and pressure change
pressure is directly related to volume T or F F it is conversely related
When volume increase pressure.... and when volume decreases pressure... When volume increase pressure decreases and when volume decreases pressure increases
diaphragm moves inferior and external intercostals elevate and pull the ribs superiorly during what? quiet inspiration
diaphragm moves inferior and external intercostals elevate and pull the ribs superiorly causing a increase or decrease in thoracic volume? increase
quiet inspiration causes intrapulmonary pressure to increase or decrease as air moves in? decrease
accessory muscles such as the sternocleidomastoid are used during deep inspiration
deep inspiration involves what? accesory muscles such as sternocleidomastoid
quiet inspiration involves what? diaphragm and external intercostal muscles
quiet expiration involves what? nothing...completely passive no energy required
what happens during quiet expiration? diaphragm moves up, ribs drop, volume decreases, pressure increases, air moves out
why is quiet expiration passive due to elasticity of lungs
forced expiration involves what? internal intercostals -ribs move down sternum inward. abdominal muscles increase.
during forced expiration do the abdominal muscles increase or decrease? increase
during focred expiration do the ribs move down or up via? down via internal intercostals
during quiet expiration does the diaphragm move up or down up
during quiet expiration do the ribs go up or down? down
during quiet expiration does pressure increase or decrease increase
forced expiration is an active process whereas quiet expiration is not T or F true
forced expiration requires energy but quiet expiration does not. T or F true
in an ashtma patient they use what kind of breathing most of the time forced expiration
asthma patients use their accessory muscles to exhale like a normal person in deep inspiration T or F true
air flow is measured in what unit L/min
is air flow inversely or directly related to the pressure difference between the atmosphere and the alveoli? directly
air flow is directly related to the pressure difference btween the atmosphere and the alveoli
air flow is inversely related to the airway resistance
air flow is directly or inversely related to the airway resistance inversely
increase resistance= flow; decreased resistance= flow increase resistance=decreased flow; decreased resistance increased flow
how is airway resistance determined by the diameter of the airways
histamine causes bronchio constriction or dilation? constriction
epinephrine causes broncho constriction or dilation? dilation
smooth muscle of bronchioles responds to ANS and to local chemicals T or F true
surface tension shows how strong the moleucles of a liquid are attracted to one another T or F true
increase in surface tension is an increase or decrease in compliance? decrease
alveolar suface tension tries to do what to the alveoli make them smaller
pure water has high or low surface tension high
what is surfactant decreases surface tension-detergent-like made by cells in the alveoli
detergent like substance made by cells in the alveoli and decreases surface tension surfactant
decrease in surface tension makes the lungs easier to expand t or F true
surfactatnt makes lungs harder to expand T or F False-makes it easier to expand
easier to expand equals hih or low compliance high
what does IRDS stand for? Infant Respiratory distress syndrome
what is IRDS? alveolar collapse in premature babies due to inadequate surfactant production
alveolar collapse in premature babies due to inadequate surfactant production is called what? IRDS-Infant Respiratory distress syndrome
what is compliance degree of volume increase which occurs with a given increase in pressure
degree of volume increase which occurs with a given increase in pressure is called what/ compliance
compliance is the degree of volume decrease with a increase in pressure T or F False-volume increase and volume pressure
what can decrease compliance? lung fibrosis-scar tissue
what is lung fibrosis scar tissue in the lung
scar tissue in the lung is called what lung fibrosis
does lung fibrosis increase or decrease compliance decrease
the higher the compliance the increased energy needed to breath T or F False...the lower the compliance the increased energy required to breathe
if you are running from a bear...do your bronchiles dilate or constrict? arterioles? bronchioles dilate-sympathetic...arterioles constrict
no surfactant is high or low surface tension, high or low compliance and more or less energy to breathe high surface tension, low compliance and more energy required to breathe
how do you calculate total compliance? chest wall compliance plus lung compliance
does chest wall compliance increase or decrease with age? decrease
what is tidal volume air in and out during normal quiet breathing
air that moves in and out during normal breathing is called what tidal volume
what is IRV inspiratory reserve volume-add'l air that can be inspired after normal inspiration
what is ErV expiratory reserve volume-add'l air that can be expired after normal expiration
expiratory reserve volume-add'l air that can be expired after normal expiration ERV-expiratory reserve volume
inspiratory reserve volume-add'l air that can be inspired after normal inspiration IRV-inspiratory reserve volume
what is Rv risidual volume-air left w/in the lungs after maximum expiration
average amount of residual air is what amount? about 1 liter
risidual volume is what air left w/in the lungs after maximum expiration
what is FRc functional residual capacity=RV+vC
Rv+vc= FRC
vital capacity is what total exchangable air ErV+TV+IRv
ErV+TV+IRv=what vital capacity
total lung capacity is what rv+VC
rv+VC= total lung capacity TLC
the volume of the conducting zone is called what anatomical dead space
what is anatomical dead space the volume of the conducting zone 150 ml the total of tV minus 150 is the amount used for gas exchange ex. 500-150=350
pulmonary function tests are measured by a spirometer
what is a spirometer measures PFT's or pulmonary function tests-measures lung capacities and volumes
measures lung capacities and volumes spirometer
increased airway resistance in athma COPD...obstructive pulmonary disease
asthma is an obstructive pulmonary disease t or f true
what is obstructive pulmonary disease increased airway resistance
what is restrictive pulmonary disease decreased vital capacity
decreased vital capacity is called restrictive pulmonary disease
one example of restrictive pulmonary disease pulmonary fibrosis
TV times resp rate is called what minute ventilation
minute ventilation is what TV times resp rate
forced vital capacity FVC is what VC when exhaled rapidly as possible
VC exhaled as fast as possible is called what FVC Forced vital capacity
FEV1 is what forced expiratory volume 1 second-amount of air exhaled in the 1st second of a forced expiration normal is 80%
normal FEV1 80%
air exhaled in the 1st second of a focred expiration is what FEV1-forced expiratory volume
the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted by each individual gas in the mixture true or F True
the pressure of each gas is called partial pressure
partial pressure is proportional to what percentage of that gas in the mixture
O2 makes up what percent of the atmosphere no matter where you are 21%
at sea level 760mmHG what is the parital pressure of O2? 760 times 21%=160gass
in abq the partial pressure is lower T or F true...625 times 21% is only 130 because atmospheric pressure in ABQ is less
when a mixture of gases is in contact with a liquid, it will dissolve the liquid in proportion to its partial pressure true
the concentration of the gas in the liquid is what? the partial pressure of a gas dissolved in a liquid
T or F. If room air is in contact with water the PO2 in the air and in the water will be 160 mmHg after equilibrium has occured true
if the partial pressure of a gas is higher in the air or water, the gas will diffuse from high to low concentration until equilibrium is reached T or F true example...CO2 bubbles out when opening a soda can high in PCO2
at a specific pressure, the actual amount of gas dissolved dpends on the solubility of the gas T or F true
at the same partial pressure what happens to CO2 and o2 more CO2 than O2 is dissolved in water because CO2 is more soluble
Alveolar gas PO2 is what 104 mmHg
alveolar gas has a lower PO2 a higher PCO2 and a higher PH20 than air due to gas exchange and humidification T or F true
Venous PO2 is what 40 mmHg
movement of O2 and Co2 influenced by what partial pressure gradient and gas solubility...matching btwn ventilation of the alveoli and perfusion of the alveolar capillaries...thickness and surface area of resp membrane
venous PCO2 is what 45 mmHg
alveolar PCO2 is what 40 mmHg
the PO2 and PCO2 of the blood leaving the pulmonary capillaries will be the same as that of the alveolar air T or F true
what happens when the lung has low ventilation? what happens to the alveolar PO2 increases or decreases causing the arterioles to constrict or dilate increase or decrease blood flow decreases ...constrict...decreases blood flow
alveolar PO2 increases do the arterioles constrict or dilate and does blood flow increase or decrease dilate...increase
what is shunting when blood passes through the capillaries of non-ventilated alveoli
when blood passes through the capillaries of non-ventilated alveoli is called what shunting
what does shunting cause pulmonary vein PO2 to be lower than alveoli PO2
shunting causes pulm vein PO2 lower or higher than alveoli PO2 lower
if the resp membrane is thicker, what happens to oxygen diffusion it is slowed
if the resp membrane is thicker it can lead to what hypoxia
if the resp membrane is thicker what happens to CO2? no change because it is much more soluble
what is the total alveolar surface area 90 m squared
what is loss of surface area or blockage of airways can lead to hypoxia
emphysema is low or high surface area and causes what low surface area and hypoxia
internal resp/tissues...CO2 and O2 are reversed from exp resp T or F True
internal resp in the tissues what is PO2 in the arteries? in the tissues? 100 mmHg ....40 mmHg
is oxygen soluble in water no poorly soluble
what percent of oxygen is dissolved in plasma 1.5 %
what percent of oxygen is bound to hemoglobin? 98.5%
each Hb molecule has how many binding sites for oxygen? 4
oxygen is bound is called oxyhemoglobin
what is oxyhemoglobin? when oxygen is bound to hemoglobin
what is O2 saturation the percentage of the total O2 binding sites occupied by oxygen
the percentage of the total O2 binding sites occupied by oxygen is called what O2 saturation
what is the oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve? the relationship between teh PO2 and CO2 saturation
what is the realtionship between the PO2 and CO2 saturation called the oxygen hemoglobin dissocation curve
at sea level arterial blood is what perecent saturated and has how much PO2 98% with 100 mmHg PO2
ABQ arterial blood PO2 O2 sat is PO2 abq is 80 mmHg and 95% O2
Venous blood has an O2 sat of what percent 75%
flat portion of the curve large drops in PO2 small drops in O2..Hb loads O2 easily
large drops in PO2 small drops in O2..Hb loads O2 easily flat portion of curve
steep portion of curve small drops in Po2 and large drops in O2 Hb unloads O2 easily
small drops in Po2 and large drops in O2 Hb unloads O2 easily steep portion of the curve
factors that weaken the Hb-O2 bond and help it unload O2 easily more CO2 and H+ and higher temperature
what is hypoxia low oxygen level in the tissues
low oxygen level in the tissues hypoxia
low oxygen level in the blood hypoxemia
what is hypoxemia low oxygen level in the blood
what is cyanosis blue coloration to skin and mucosa O2 sat is <75%
blue coloration to skin and mucosa O2 sat is <75% is called what cyanosis
anemic hypoxia is inadequate amt of functioing Hb in the blood such as severe anemia
inadequate amt of functioing Hb in the blood such as severe anemia is called what anemic hypoxia
lack of blood flow such as shock is called what ischemic hypoxia
what is ischemic hypoxia? lack of blood flow such as shock
what is histotoxic hypoxia? problems with cellular respiration
problems with cellular respiration is called what histotoxic hypoxia
hypoxemic hypoxia is what decreased O2 sat such as drowning and lung disease
decreased O2 sat such as drowning and lung disease is what hypoxemic hypoxia
release O2 causes what to PCO2, PO2, pH, and temp? increase PCO2 decrease PO2 decrease Ph and Increase temp
carbon dioxide in the blood how much is dissolved in plasma on Hb, and as bicarbonate what % 7-10 plamsa, 20% Hb bound to globin, and 70% as bicarbomnate hco3-
carbonic acid dissociates to form H+ and HCO3 t of F true
in the lungs HCO3-combines with H+ to produce H2CO3 broken down to form CO2 and H20
Co2=acid more CO2 in blood raises or lower the Ph lowers the Ph
where is resp rhythm controlled medulla
basic resp rhythm rate is how much 12-15 breaths per minute
the respiratory centers of the medulla which control resp rhythm can be suppressed by drugs and alcohol T or F true
inspiration sent through what nerve; controls what muscle phrenic nerve-diaphragm
inspriation sent through another nerve; controls what muscle intercostal nerves-intercostal muscle
modifications of basic rhytm occurs where centers in the pons
what is the most important chemical factor affecting ventilation PCO2
what is normal pco2 40 mmHg
where are PCO2 levels monitored chemoreceptors in the medulla
H+ions can or cannot pass directly from the blood to the CSF cannot
increase in PCO2 causes an increase or decrease in breathing and is CO2 in the blod increased is pH decreased or increased increaes breathing and Co2 in the blood is removed so decreases pH increases
what is hyperventilation and what happens during it excessive ventilation; PCO2 lower and increases pH. usually caused by anxiety
symptoms of hyperventiation treatment tingling hands/feet and muscle spasm. treatment-breathe into paper bag which increases the PCO2
the PO2 must drop below how much before O2 becomes a major stimulus for ventilation 60 mmHg or 90% sat
decreased pH caues increase in ventilation
PO2 is most important in controlling ventiation when sat is less than 90% or PO2 is less than 60 mmHg
during exercise, ventilation can increase 20 fold but PO2 PCO2 and Ph remain normal true or False true
low to high altitude-low PO2 results in acclimatiation
acclimatization O2 sat decreases, low PO2, ventilation increases, Hb and HCt increase due to increase in erythropoietin
what does COPD stand for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease
COPD >80% caused by smoking
COPD what is it decreased ability to force air out of lungs
what is dyspnea difficulty breathing
cOPD victims experience increase in PCO2 and decrease in pH hypoxemia nd hypoventilation true
emphysema and chronic bronchitis from COPD either or or both? most patients have a mixture of both
what causes emphysema breakdown of alveolar walls decrease in surface area
emphysema symptoms lose weight due to increase energy and breathing; barrel chest, bronchioles collapse during expiration.
chronic bronchitis is what inflammation of the airway mucosa with increased mucous production increased resistance and increased frequency of infection
asthma is what inflammation of the airway mucosa allergic in origin
lung cancer leading cause of cancer death 90% due to smoking and most arise from epithelium of resp mucosa or submucosal glands
rapid breathing is called tachypnea
with age the thoracic wall becomes more rigid lungs lose elasticity and vital capacity decreaes t or f true
Created by: 1671530535