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anatomy: tissues

chapter 4

QuestionAnswer
4 types of tissues epithelial(covers and lines), connective (connect and bind), muscular (movement), nervous (communication and control)
characteristics of epithelial tissue tightly packed cells, specialized contacts bw cells, avascular, innervated, regenerate, specific size/surfaces
tight junctions/zona occludens proteins bw 2 cells that SEALS space bw cells. completely attaches cell to neighbor. materials move through epithelial cells instead of between
adhering junctions/zona adherens proteins bw 2 cells that keep cells from separating
desmosomes/macula adherens proteins bw 2 cells that ANCHOR cells to basement membrane or reinforce stress points (button or snap, each cell contributes half)
gap junction proteins bw 2 cells that form CHANNEL so that ions and small molecules can cross QUICKLY
basement membrane network of protein fibers and carbs bw epithelial and connective tiss. regulates what enters or leaves. anchors epithelial
simple squamous single layer of flat wide irregular shape (fried egg). allows rapid movement across surface.L in alveoli (lungs), in lumen of blood vessels, capillaries, heart chambers, serous body membranes
simple cuboidal single layer cubic cells (as tall as wide) nucleus in center. F absorption and secretion. L thyroid follicles, kidney tubules, ducts of glands, surface of ovaries
simple columnar single layer tall and narrow, nucleus lengthwise. F absorb and secrete (mucin). L digestive tract, bronchi and bronchioles (lungs), fallopian tubes (cilia move eggs)
stratified squamos many layers of more squashed cells toward apical surface. F protection. L mouth esophagus vagina anus (non keratinized), skin (keratinized to waterproof and strengthen and protect)
stratified cuboidal multiple layers of cube shaped cells. F: protection and secretion. L exocrine glands, some parts of male urethra
pseudostratified columnar appears as many layers of columnar cells at diff heights, nucleus seen at different levels, can have goblet cells and cilia. F: protection & secretion of mucin. L respiratory tract, epididymis.
transitional oval or dome shape at apical surface (if relaxed), can be binucleated. F stretch and relax. L urinary sys: ureters, bladder, urethra
microvilli tiny cytoplasmic projections on apical surface of cells that increase surface area for secretion and absorption, brush border
cilia cytoplasmic microtubule projections beat to move materials
connective tissue characteristics specialized cells, usually not tightly packed, protein fibers, ground substance
collagen PF 3 protein strands twisted, strong and stretch resistant. L tendons ligaments
reticular PF BRANCH network of interwoven fibers for support framework
elastic PF elastin can be stretched and then return to original shape (rubber band)
ground substance GS bw cells and protein fibers, sometimes dense or liquid. forms extracellular matrix w protein fibers
areolar (loose CT) abstract art. fibroblasts, wbc, all 3 PFs. F binds packs cushions around organs. L surrounds nerves, vessels, subcutaeneous layer. GS gel like liquid
adipose (loose CT) marshmallows adipocytes packed together. PF few collagen. GS gel like. F protects cushions insulates stores energy. L around kidney, eyeballs, hypodermis, abdomen breast buttock
reticular (loose CT) fibroblasts, reticular cells, wbc. PF reticular. GS gel like. F support framework. L tonsils, spleen, thymus, lymphatic system organs, lymph nodes
dense regular CT fibroblasts. PF collagen tightly packed parallel. GS not much. avascular. F: strength and flexibility in ONE direction. L tendons ligaments. stacked lasagna noodels
dense irregular CT fibroblasts. PFs collagen irregularly arranged (swirls). GS not much. F withstand tension in many directions. L dermis, periosteum, perichondrium, , organ capsules.
hyaline cartilage glassy smooth, lacunae w chondrocytes. GS hard rubbery. F support, reduces friction, resists compression. L embryonic skeleton, nose, trachea, larynx, bronchi, costal. weak.
fibrocartilage chondrocytes in lacunae. PFs wavy collagen. GS less firm than hyaline. f shock absorber resists compression. L intervertebral discs, pubic su=ymphysis, meniscus of knee joints.
elastic cartilage chondrocytes in lacunae w web like mesh of elastic fibers. GS gel like. F: maintain structure and shape allows flex. L pinna of ear, epiglottis.
4 types of body membranes mucous (line spaces that comm w outside digestive urinary respiratory reproductive); serous (line ventral body cavities thoracic mediastinum and abdominopelvic and on top of organs); cutaneous (skin); synovial (outer edges of joints)
parietal membrane serous membrane lines wall of ventral cavity. pleura (lungs), pericardium (heart), peritoneum (abdominopelvic)
visceral membrane lies ON ventral organs. pleura (lungs), pericardium (heart), peritoneum (abdominopelvic)
Created by: loraeo