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A&P II Ch. 23

Anatomy of the Respiratory System

What does the respiratory system function as? An air distributor and gas exchanger- supplying oxygen and removing carbon dioxide
What are Alveoli? sacs that serve as gas exchangers; all other parts of respiratory system serve as air distributors
What else does the respiratory system do? Warms, filters, and humidifies air
What are the two divisions of the respiratory system? Upper respiratory tract, lower respiratory tract
What is the upper respiratory tract? organs are located outside of the thorax and consist of nose, nasopharnyx, oropharnyx, laryngopharnyx, and larnyx
What is the lower respiratory tract? organs are located within the thorax and consist of trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs
What three structures that may be present in the internal nose? Cleft palate, cribiform plate, septum
What is the cleft palate? palatine bones fail to unite completely and only partially separate the nose and the mouth, producing difficulty in swallowing
What is the internal nose? the nasal cavity that lies over the roof of the mouth, separated by palatine bones
What is the cribiform plate? separates the roof of the nose from the cranial cavity
What is the septum? separates nasal cavity into a right and a left cavity; consists of four structures: the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone, the vomer bone, the vomeronasal cartilages, and the septal nasal cartilage
Each nasal cavity is divided into how many passageways? what are they called? 3; superior, middle and inferior meati
What are anterior nares? external openings to the nasal cavities, open into the vestibule
What is the sequence of air through nose into pharynx? anterior nares to vestibule to all three meati simultaneously to posterior nares
What are three types of nasal mucosa? Vestibular epithelium, respiratory epithelium, olfactory epithelium
What is the vestibular epithelium? horny layer, hairs, sebaceous and sweat glands
What is the respiratory epithelium? a mucous membrane that air passes over; contains rich blood supply
What is the respiratory epithelium? specialized membrane in the roof containing many olfactory nerve cells and a rich lymphatic plexus for olfaction
What are the paranasal sinuses? four pairs of air-contaning spaces that open or drain into nasal cavity; each is lined with respiratory mucosa
The nose, which is the passageway for air to travel to and from the lungs, has three special functions. What are they? filters the air, aids speech, and makes possible the sense of smell
What is the pharynx? tubelike structure extending from the base of skull to esophagus; made of muscle and divided into three parts
What are the 3 parts of the pharynx? Nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
Where are the Pharyngeal tonsils located and what are they called when they become enlarged? located in the nasopharynx, called adenoids when they become enlarged
The oropharynx contains two pairs of organs, what are they? teh palatine tonsils (most commonly removed) and the lingual tonsils (rarely removed)
The pharynx is the pathway for what? the respiratory and digestive tracts
Where is the larynx located? Located between root of tongue and upper end of trachea
What does the larynx consist of? Consists of cartilages attached to each other by muscle and lined by a ciliated mucous membrane, which forms two pairs of folds
What are the two pairs of fold formed by the larynx? vestibular folds (false vocal cords); true vocal chords
What are the cartilages that are the framework of the larynx? • Single laryngeal cartilages—the three largest cartilages: the thyroid cartilage, the epiglottis, and the cricoid cartilages • The paired laryngeal cartilages—three pairs of smaller cartilages: arytenoid, corniculate, and cuneiform cartilages
What are the muscles of the larynx? Intrinsic- both insert and originate w/in the larynx; Extrinsic- insert in larynx but originate on some other structure
What are the two main functions of the larynx? Larynx functions as part of the airway to the lungs and produces the voice
What is the trachea? the windpipe which extends from the end of the larynx to the primary bronchi. It starts at C6 and ends at T6. The posterior opening covered by a smooth muscle called Trachealis.
The trachealis muscle can contract to do what? reduce the diameter of the trachea
How does the trachea divide to become the bronchi and alveoli? Lower end of trachea divides into two primary bronchi, one on right and one on left, which enter lung and divide into secondary bronchi that branch into bronchioles, which eventually divide into the alveolar ducts
What are alveoli? the primary gas exchange structures
What is the respiratory membrane? the barrier between which gases are exchanged between alveolar air and blood
What does the respiratory membrane consist of? alveolar epithelium (made up of pneumocytes type I which is simple squamous epithelium), capillary endothelium, and their joined basement membranes
What is surfactant? a component of the fluid coating the respiratory membrane secreted by pneumocytes type II (Cuboidal cells)that reduces surface tension
What are dust cells? are phagocytic cells (macrophages) found in the alveolar space
What distribute air to lung's interior? Bronchi and bronchioles
What is the shape and location of the Lungs? Cone-shaped organs extending from the diaphragm to above the clavicles
What is the apex of the Lungs? top part lies above the clavicle
What is the Hilum of the Lungs? slit on lung’s medial surface where primary bronchi and pulmonary blood vessels enter (pulmonary artery & 2 pulmonary veins)
What is the base of the Lungs? inferior surface of lung that rests on diaphragm
Where is the costal surface of the Lungs? lies against ribs
Where is the medial surface of the Lungs? facing the mediastinum
What is the shape of the anterior border? sharp
What is the shape of the posterior surface? round
What are the two lobes the Left Lung is divided into? (superior and inferior) -Oblique fissure separates superior and inferior lobes - Lingula — represents the middle lobe
What are the three lobes of the Right Lung? (superior, middle and inferior) - Oblique fissure — separates superior and middle lobes from inferior lobe -Horizontal fissure — separates superior lobe from middle lobe.
What are the two functions of the Lungs? air distribution and gas exchange
What are the two pleura that divide the three divisions of the thoracic cavity? • Pleural divisions —part occupied by lungs • Mediastinum —part occupied by esophagus, trachea, large blood vessels, and heart
What is the function of the thorax? to bring about inspiration and expiration
Created by: courtney.marie23
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