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CH.21 Immune System


What does the immune system protect against? assaults on the body (internal and external)
What are the three ways of identification of other particles? Self markers, Non-self markers, self tolerance
Which is the identification is molecules on the surface of human cells that are unique to an individual, thus identifying the cell as “self” to the immune system? Self markers
Which identifiers are molecules on the surface of foreign or abnormal cells or particles and identify the particle as “non–self” to the immune system? Non-self markers
Which identifiers represent the ability of our immune system to attack abnormal or foreign cells but spare our own normal cells? Self-tolerance
What are two major categories of immune mechanism? innate immunity and adaptive immunity
What does innate immunity provide? provides a general, nonspecific defense against anything that is not “self”
Adaptive immunity acts as what? acts as a specific defense against specific tthreatening agents
What are the primary cells used for innate immunity? epithelial barrier cells, phagocytes (neutrophils, macrophages), and natural killer cells; chemicals used in innate immunity—complement and interferon
What are the primary types of cells for adaptive immunity? lymphocytes called T cells and B cells
What is cytokines? any of several kinds of chemicals released by cells to promote innate and adaptive immune responses (examples: interleukin, interferon, leukotriene)
What is the first line of defense? Mechanical and chemical barriers
The internal environment of the body is protected by a barrier formed by what? skin and mucous membranes
What is the second line of defense? Inflammation
What do inflammation mediators include? histamine, kinins, prostaglandins, and related compounds
What are chemotactic factors? substances that attract white blood cells to the area of infection in a process called chemotaxis
What are characteristic signs of inflammation? heat, redness, pain, and swelling
What is systemic inflammation? occurs from a body-wide inflammatory responses
What is ingestion and destruction of microorganisms or other small particles by phagocytes called? Phagocytosis
What is emigration? process by which immune cells (neutrophils) squeeze themselves through the wall of a blood vessel to get to the site of injury/infection
What is chemotaxis? chemical attraction of cells to the source of the chemical attractant
What is diapedesis? process by which red blood cells are passively pushed out of the blood vessel by hydrostatic pressure through intercellular gaps behind emigrating neutrophils.
What is the most numerous type of phagocyte; usually first to arrive at the site of injury; migrates out of bloodstream; kill bacteria; forms pus? Neutrophil
What are macrophages? Phagocytic monocytes grow larger after migrating from bloodstream; dendritic cell (DC)- type of macrophage w/ long branches or extensions.
What are examples of macrophages? histiocytes in connective tissue, microglia in nervous system, and Kupffer cells in liver
What are natural killer cells? lymphocytes that kill tumor cells and cells infected by viruses
What is interferon (INF)? protein synthesized and released into the circulation by certain cells if invaded by viruses to signal other, nearby cells to enter a protective antiviral state
What are complement? group of enzymes that produce a cascade of reactions resulting in a variety of immune responses
What marks foreign cells for destruction by phagocytes? opsonization
What is the third line of defense? Adaptive immunity consisting of lymphocytes- 2 different clesses of a type of white blood cell
What are two classes of lymphocytes? B lymphocytes (B Cells) and T lymphocytes (T Cell)
What is antibody-mediated immunity? B-cell Mechanism (produce antibodies that attack pathogens)
What pathogens are more directly classified as cell-mediated immunity (cellular immunity)? T-cells attack
When are lymphocytes densest? where they develop— in bone marrow, thymus gland, lymph nodes, and spleen
What are the 5 factors of antibodies? IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE, IgD
What is IgM? antibody that naïve B cells synthesize and insert into their own plasma membranes; it is the predominant class produced after initial contact with an antigen
What is IgG? makes up 75% of antibodies in the blood; predominant antibody of the secondary antibody response
What is IgA? major class of antibody in the mucous membranes of respiratory and GI systems and in saliva and tears
What is IgE? small amount; produces harmful effects such as allergies
What is IgD? small amount in blood; precise function unknown
What is the primary response of antibodies? initial encounter with a specific antigen triggers the formation and release of specific antibodies that reaches its peak in a few days
What is the secondary response of antibodies? a later encounter with the same antigen triggers a much quicker response; B memory cells rapidly divide, producing more plasma cells and thus more antibodies
What are T-Cells? lymphocytes that go through the thymus gland before migrating to the lymph nodes and spleen
Pre T-cells develop into ___ while in ___? thymocytes; thymus
Thymocytes stream into blood and are carried to T-dependant zones where? Spleen and lymph nodes
Cells of the cloned T Cells differentiate into what? effector T cells and memory T cells
Effector T cells do what? go to site where antigen entered, bind to antigens, and begin their attack
What are cytotoxic T cells? T cells released lymphotoxin to kill cells
What are helper T cells? (TH cells) regulate the function of the B cells, T cells, phagocytes, and other leukocytes
What are suppressor T cells? regulatory T cells that suppress lymphocyte function, thus regulating immunity and promoting self-tolerance
What are antibodies? proteins (immunoglobulins) secreted by activated B cell
What is innate (inborn or inherited immunity)? genetic mechanisms put innate immune mechanisms in place during development in the womb
What is adaptive or acquired immunity? resistance developed after birth
What are the two types of adaptive or acquired immunity? Natural immunity results from nondeliberate exposure to antigens; Artificial immunity results from deliberate exposure to antigens, called immunization
Natural and artificial immunity may be what? Active or inactive
What is active immunity? when the immune system responds to a harmful agent regardless of whether it was natural or artificial; lasts longer than passive
What is passive immunity? developed when immunity from another individual is transferred to an individual who was not previously immune; it is temporary but provides immediate protection
What are the differences between B cells and T cells? B cells are antibody-mediated (humoral) immunity; T cells are cell mediated (cellular) immunity
What are the stages of adaptive immunity? Recognition of antigen; Activation of lymphocytes; Effector phase (immune attack); Decline of antigen causes lymphocyte death (homeostatic balance); Memory cells remain for later response if needed
Immune system is regulated to some degree by what two systems? nervous and endocrine systems
What are some agents of the immune system? blood cells, skin cells, mucosal cells, brain cells, liver cells, and other types of cells and their secretions
Created by: courtney.marie23



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