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CDC 1-2

Endocrine System

_____ are chemical substances secreted by certain cells to control various bodily functions Hormones
Cells that receive the hormones and act as receptors are known as “_____.” target cells
The ______ is also referred to as the body’s “master gland” because of the controlling effect it has on the other glands. This gland is approximately 1 centimeter in diameter (about the size of a cherry). pituitary gland
Also known as the growth hormone (GH). Stimulates cells to increase in size and to divide faster than usual. Accomplishes this by causing amino acids to perfuse cell membranes, resulting in the cells converting the amino acid into protein. Somatotropin (STH)
Also known as thyrotropin. Controls the release of certain hormones from the thyroid gland. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Controls the release of certain hormones from the adrenal cortex. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Promotes the production of maternal milk following childbirth. Prolactin (PRL)
Stimulates growth and development of egg cell-containing follicles in the ovaries. Stimulates secretion of estrogen. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Stimulates the initial production of sperm cells. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
The ______ secretes the antidiuretic and oxytocin hormones posterior lobe
______ stimulates uterine wall contractions. It also stimulates contractions within the mammary glands to produce milk. Oxytocin (OT)
The ______ is located just below the larynx and anterior to the trachea. It has two large lateral lobes that are attached to a central stem, which gives the _____ a butterfly shape. The thyroid gland secretes three hormones. thyroid gland
Lowers calcium and phosphate concentrations in the blood. Accomplishes this by limiting the release of these substances from the bones and by stimulating the kidneys to excrete excess amounts of the substances. Calcitonin
Accounts for approximately 95% of the thyroid hormones. Stimulates release of energy from carbohydrates. Increases protein metabolism. Stimulates growth. Stimulates nervous system activity. Thyroxine
Same as thyroxine, but is five times more potent and, therefore, circulated in a much smaller amount. Triiodothyronine
These glands secrete one hormone, parathormone. Parathormone glands
_____ stimulates the release of calcium from the bones, causes kidneys to conserve calcium by preventing overexcretion and assists in stimulating the intestines to absorb calcium. Parathormone
There are two _____—one on the superior portion of each kidney. _____ are generally shaped like pyramids. Each adrenal gland has two parts: the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla. adrenal glands
The ______ is the outer part of the adrenal glands. It makes up most of the gland and is composed of layers of cells that are packed closely together. The adrenal cortex secretes the aldosterone, cortisol, and sex hormones. adrenal cortex
_____ helps regulate electrolytes by causing sodium to be reabsorbed and potassium to be excreted. Aldosterone
_____ promotes the metabolism of proteins and fats. It causes an increase in use of fatty acids for energy and a decrease in use of glucose for energy. _____ also promotes an increase in blood glucose concentration. Cortisol
_____ assist in stimulating the development of sex organs. Sex hormones
The _____ secretes the epinephrine and norepinephrine hormones. adrenal medulla
_____ increases heart rate by stimulating more forceful contractions. It causes skeletal muscle blood vessels and the airway to dilate. _____ increases the level of blood sugar and the metabolism. Epinephrine
_____ increases the force of heart contractions, but has less effect on heart rate 3–18 than epinephrine. This hormone causes skin blood vessels to constrict, which results in a greater flow of blood to skeletal muscles. Norepinephrine
The _____ is a long, flat organ that lies posterior to the stomach. It is attached to the duodenum by a duct. pancreas
The portion of the pancreas that functions as part of the endocrine system is called the “______.” The ______ contain cells that are closely associated with blood vessels, and secrete three hormones: glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin. Islets of Langerhans
_____ stimulates the liver to break down fats into fatty acids and glycerol and to convert certain substances into glucose. Glucagon
_____ regulates metabolism of glucose and inhibits the conversion of certain substances into glucose. Insulin also stimulates the transportation of amino acids into the cells and the storage of fat by adipose cells. Insulin
_____ helps regulate carbohydrates by inhibiting the secretion of glucagons. Somatostatin
Created by: jhey33
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