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Ch. 5-8

Dermis Strong Flexible connective tissue *binds entire body 2gether**hair follicles, oil & sweat glands reside in dermis, extreme stretching ex:pregnancy,underlying dermis makes up bulk of skin. its tough leathery layer composed of fibrous connective tissue
Epidermis **outermost protective shield** 4-5 layers located in Keratinocytes,Merkel,Melanocytes,Langgerhans cells. Skin that covers palms & fingertips
Melanocytes are melanin-producing cells located in the bottom layer (the stratum basale) of the skin's epidermis,Melanin is a pigment that is responsible primarily for the color of skin.
Merkel Cells Found in the epidermal & dermal junction.They are associated with the sense of light touch discrimination of shapes and textures.
Keratinocytes predominant cell type in epidermis,outermost layer of the human skin, produce keratin a prtien that hardens protects skin, dead cells shed off
Langerhans Cells phagocytic macrophages that interact with WBC during the immune process, arise from bone marrow
hypodermis Subcutaneous layer lies between dermis & underlying tissue & organs, Adipose tissue & storage 4fat. fasten skin to underlying surface,insulator ,shock absorber
blisters dermis- acute trauma can cause a blister, which is separation of dermal & epidermal layers by a fluid filled pocket
Striae dermis skin- silvery white scars known as stretch marks
5 layers of skin 1.Stratum Basale 2.Startum Spinosum 3.Stratum Granulosum 4. Stratum Luciden 5. Stratum Corneum
Stratum Basale 5 deepest layer & attached to underlying dermis, single row cells, 10-25% are melanocytes
Stratum Spinosum 4 Contains 8-10 layers of cells connected by desmosomes.Irregular spiny shape "prickle cells"
Stratum Granulosum 3 thin 3-5 layer cells held 2gether by desmosomes& contains Keratinohyaline granules which contributes to form of keratin in upper layers of epidermis
Stratum Lucidum 2 2-3layers, thin flat dead Kerstinocytes.*only found in thick skin** ex: soles of feet & hands
Stratum Corneum 1 Outermost layer, 20-30 layers thick, Keratin & thickened plasma membrane cells in this layer protects against abrasion always shed layers
Skin Color contribution Melanin, Carotene & Hemoglobin
Melanin (melanocytes) produces melanin, pigment that protects cells from UV rays..clumping of elastin fibers result in leathery skin leads to skin cancer
skin protection from bacteria natural bactericide found in sebum,skin cells also secrete a anti-biotic called humsn defensin that punches holes in the bacteria
skin cancer 1/5 Americans develop skin cancer, most benign & dont spread, some malignant & spread overexposure to UV rays, damages dna bases,disable tumor suppressor genes, sunburn speeds process
Fas protein that causes genetically damaged skin cells top commit suicide
Basal Cell Carcinoma Least deadly most common skin cancer. cells of stratum basale proliferate, invading dermis & hypodermis, lesion common face. 99% survival rate
Squamous Cell Carcinoma cause from Keritanocytes of stratum spinosa, arise from hands & head, grows rapidly, matestasize if not removed. of caught early good survival rate
Melanoma Cancer *Most Dangerous** cancer of Melanocytes, higly matastesize & resistance to chemo, apears spontaneously & abt 1/3 develop from pre-existing moles, early detection key 4 survival, surgery, immunotherapy, ABCD
ABCD rule A-Asymentery-lesion asymetrical B- border irregular, borders exhibit indentation C-color spot has several colors D-diameter, lesion lrge than 6mm diameter
1st degree burn only epidermis is damaged, symptoms include localized redness,swelling & pain ex: partial thickness burns
2nd degree burns injure Epidermis & upper reghion of dermis, symptoms are similiar to 1st degree but w/blisters ex: partial thickness burns
3rd Degree Burn Full thickness burn, involves entire thivkness of skin. Burned area appears grayish white, chery red or blsckened, nerve ending destroyed so no pain, skin graft to repair
Flat Bones thin flattened, usually curved ex: scapula, sternum, ribs most skull bones
Irregular Bones complicated shape, ex: vertebra
Long Bones longer than wide has shaft & 2 ends *all limbs are long bones**hv epiphysis both ends & diaphysis
Epiphysis at end of bones, joint surface of epiphysis
Diaphysis tubular shaft forms long axis of the bone structured from the really thick collar of compact bone that surrounds the medullary cavity
Epiphysis Plate Between diaphysis & epiphysis of adult bone, disc of hyaline cartilage that grows during childhood
Intramembrous Ossification fibrous membranes are replaced by bone tissue, spongy bone membranes develop w/in ossification then red marrow forms w/in spongy bone tissue followed by form of compact bone, skull & clavicle flat bones
Endochondrial Ossification hyaline cartilage replaced by bone tissue.
compound fracture if a bone end penetrates the skin
simple fracture bone end doesnt penetrate the skin
complex fracture closed fracture w/soft tissue damage
Osteoporosis disease which bone absorption outpaces bone deposit, bone mass is reduced,becomes pourous & light spine & femur most likely to injure, vitd & calcium,hormone replacment
Rickets common in children, causes bowed legs, deformities of pelvis,skull ribcage.Epiphyseal plate cant calcify so bones widen, lrg & abnorm long VITD defiency
Pagets Excessive & haphazard bone deposit & re absorption, nwe formed bone has Abnormal high spongy bone & reduced mineralization causes spotty weakening EX spine pelvis femur skull
Skull Sutures Lamboid, Coronal, Squamous, Sagittal
Skull formed by 22 cranial & facial bones, Cranial bones enclose & protect the brain & provide attachment sites for head & neck muscles
Kyphosis dorsally exaggerated thoracic curve (hunchback) common in elder;y due to Osteoporosis
Lordosis accentuated curve-common in overweight ppl, they are attempting to preserve their center of gravity & throw their shoulders back accentuating their lumbar curve
Scoliosis Abnormal lateral curve occurs most in thoracic region, most common in girls in early teens, idiopathic, treated w/braces or surgery
% of height Intrevertebal discs 25% counts for height of vertebral column, flatten during course of day so we r always few inches taller in am than in pm
Characteristics Lumbar vertebra Lumbar region of spine receives most stress (Li-L5) lrg kidney shaped pedicles, Lamina r shorter & thicker, vertebral foraman is triangular
Characteristics thoracic vertebra T1-T12, all attach to ribs icrese in size 1st to last, body is roughly heart shaped, 2 small demifacets into ribs,spinous process long & points downward except 11,12 articulate w/tubercles
Characteristics Cervical Vertebra C1-C7 are smallest & lightest, oval shaped except C7, spinous process r short, projects directly back & split tip, lrg triangular foramen
Verebrosternal TRUE RIBS- superior 7 pairs, attach directly to the sternum by individual costal cartilage (bars of hyaline cartilage)
Vertebralchondral Ribs 8-10 are false ribs- do not attach to sternum but connect w/costal cartilage to rib directly above them ribs 8-10
Floating(vertebral) Ribs Ribs 11-12 are called vertebral or floating cuz they hv no anterior attachments
False Ribs The false ribs, are the five sets of ribs below the top seven true ribs. A rib is considered to be "false" if it has no direct attachment to the sternum
Carpal bones Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrem,pisiform,trapezium,trapezoid,capitate, hamate
wheres our weight when we sit? lower limb carries entire weight of body, they are thicker, stronger than the upper limbs. Lower limbs include; thigh, leg, foot
lower extremities femur, tibia, fibia, foot appendicular
upper extremities clavicle, scapula, humerus,ulna, radius hand axial
Joints provide stability & protection,classified by structure & function, fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial joints
Synarthrosis Immovable Joint
Diarthrosis joints that freely move
amphlarthrosis joints that are slightly movable
Rhuematoid Arthritis chronic inflammatory disorder that effects more women than men
Osteoarthritis most common chronic arthritis common in elderly & women. as disease progresses, bone thickens & forms bony spurs that enlarge at bone ends & may restrict movement, stiffness get up lessen w/activity crunch noise
Gout- Gouty Arthritis uric Acid excreted in urine blood levels of acid rise excessively, may be deposited as needle shape crystals in soft tissie of joint, inflammation leads to painful attacks, effects 1 joint usually big toe
hip joint hip joint is formed by the articulation of the head of femur w/deeply cupped acetabulum of the hip bone
shoulder joint large head of the Humerus fits in the small shallow Glenoid cavity of the scapula
Created by: 1298518297



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