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A&P Midterm II

Ch 17

What is blood made up of? plasma and formed elements
What is the percentage of blood in the body? 8%
What are the percentages of plasma and formed elements in the blood? Plasma is 55% ad formed elements are 45%
What is the breakdown in % of what is present in plasma? Plasma is made up of 6% proteins, 92% water, and 2% other solutes
What is the breakdown in number per cubic mm of what the formed elements are made up of? Formed elements are made up of Platelets (250-400 thousand), Leukocytes (5-9 thousand), Erythrocytes (4.2-5.8 million)
Proteins in the plasma of the blood are made up of what? Albumins- 58%, Globulins- 38%, Fibrinogen- 4%
The other solutes in plasma are made up of what? Ions, nutrients, waste products, gases, regulatory substances
The leukocytes in the formed elements of the blood are made up of? Neutrophils (60-70%), lymphocytes (20-25%), monocytes (3-8%), Eosinophils (2-4%), Basophils (0.5-1%)
What is another name for RBC's? erythrocytes
What is the primary component of RBC's? hemoglobin
What is the most numerous of the formed elements? RBC's
RBCs’ critical role in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide depends on what? hemoglobin
What is an enzyme in RBCs that catalyzes a reaction that joins carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid? Carbonic anhydrase
What dissociates and generates bicarbonate ions, which diffuse out of the RBC and serve to transport carbon dioxide in the blood plasma? carbonic acid
Hemoglobin is made up of four __ chains, each attached to a __ molecule. globin, heme
Within each RBC are approximately how many molecules of hemoglobin? 200 to 300 million
What is a decrease in number or volume of functional RBCs in a given unit of whole blood? anemia
What is the entire process of RBC formation called? Erythropoiesis
What is the mother cell of RBCs? Rubriblast
RBCs are created and destroyed at a rate of approximately how many per minute in an adult? 100 million
What operates to balance number of cells formed against number of cells destroyed? homeostatic mechanisms
What is the average life span of a circulating RBC? 105 to 120 days
When Hemoglobin is broken down what are released? amino acids, iron, and bilirubin
What is the condition called when In response to decreased blood oxygen, the kidneys release erythropoietin, which stimulates erythrocyte production in the red bone marrow? Polycythemia
Another name for white blood cells is? leukocytes
When leukocytes are increased what is it called? leukocytosis
When leukocytes are decreased what is it called? leukopenia
What are the three types of granulocytes? neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
What are the two types of agranulocytes? lymphocytes, monocytes
What are neutrophils? Cells that make up approximately 65% of total WBC count in a normal blood sample; highly mobile and very active phagocytic cells; capable of Emigration; during bacterial infection; cytoplasmic granules contain lysosomes
What are increases in neutrophils called? neutrophilia
What are decreases in neutrophils called? neutropenia
What type of of WBC are increased during acute bacterial infections? Neutrophils
What percentage of WBC do eosinophils make up? 2-4%
Where are eosinophils numerous in number? respiratory and digestive tracts
What are eosinophils capable of ingesting? inflammatory chemicals and proteins associated with antigen-antibody reaction complexes
What do eosinophils provide protection against? infections caused by parasitic worms and allergic reactions
What is an increase in eosinophils called? Eosinophilia
Which WBC account for 0.5-1% of circulating WBCs? Basophils
What is contained in Basophils cytoplasmic granules? Histamine and heparin
What is an increase in Basophils called? Basophilia
What is the smallest of the WBCs? lymphocytes
What is the second most numerous WBC accounting for approximately 25% of circulating WBCs? lymphocytes
What are 2 types of lymphocytes? T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes
What are T lymphocytes function? T lymphocytes directly attack an infected or cancerous cell (cell mediated immunity)
What are B lymphocytes function? B lymphocytes produce antibodies against specific antigens (humeral immunity).
What increases lymphocytes? they increase in viral and fungal infections
What is an increase in lymphocytes called? lymphocytosis
What is a decrease in lymphocytes called? Lymphopenia
What is the largest leukocyte? monocytes
What are mobile and highly phagocytic WBCs? monocytes
Why do WBC have clinical significance? because they change with certain abnormal conditions
Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils and a few lymphocytes and monocytes generate where? red bone marrow
Most lymphocytes and monocytes develop from hemoietic stem cells where? lymphatic tissue
What is another name for platelets? Thrombocytes
What are three important properties of platelets? agglutination, adhesiveness, and aggregation
What formed element of blood as the important role of hemostasis and blood coagulation? platelets
What is formed when "sticky platelets" form physical plug and secrete several chemicals involved in the coagulation process ending in deposition of fibrin on top of the platelet plug? platelet fibrin plug (thrombus)
What is the time period for the formation and life span of platelets? 7-10 days
Where are platelets formed and how? red bone marrow, lungs, and spleen by fragmentation of megakaryocytes
What is blood type A according to antigens present? Type A- antigen A on RBC (antibody against Antigen B)
What is blood type B according to antigens present? Type B —antigen B on RBC (antibody against Antigen A)
What is blood type AB according to antigen present? Type AB —both antigen A and antigen B on RBC; known as universal recipient (no antibodies)
What is blood type O according to antigen present? Type O —neither antigen A nor antigen B on RBC; known as universal donor (antibodies against Antigens A & B)
What does it mean to have Rh-positive blood? Rh antigen is present on the RBCs
What does it mean to have Rh-positive blood? RBCs have no Rh antigen present
What kind of antibodies are not normally present in blood? Anti-Rh antibodies
When can anti-Rh antibodies appear? When Rh-negative blood has come in contact with Rh-positive RBCs
What is the liquid part of blood; clear, straw-colored fluid; made up of 90% water and 10% solutes? Plasma
What makes up 6%-8% of plasma solutes? proteins
What are the three main compounds of proteins and what do they do? Albumins- help maintain osmotic balance of body; Globulins- essential component of the immunity mechanism; fibrinogen- key role in blood clotting
What do plasma proteins have an essential role in maintaining? normal blood circulation
What is the mechanism of thrombus formation? goal of coagulation is to stop bleeding and prevent loss of vital body fluid in a swift and sure method; the “classic theory”
What are 4 components critical to thrombus formation? Prothrombin (inactive form), Thrombin, Fibrinogen (inactive form), Fibrin (end product needed for the thrombus formation)
There are three stages to blood clotting, what is stage I? injury to the blood vessel wall (endothelial cells)
What is stage II of blood clotting? conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
What is stage III of blood clotting? conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin and production of a thrombus (platelet fibrin plug)- the solid mass that stops bleeding
What is a physiological mechanism that dissolves fibrin? fibrinolysis
WHat is an enzyme in the blood that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fibrin, causing it to dissolve (enzyme that dissolves fibrin)? Fibrinolysin
Created by: courtney.marie23