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MCAT - The Cell

Kaplan MCAT Biology Chapter 1

Cell Theory All living things are composed of cells - The cell is the basic functional unit of life - Cells arise only from pre-existing cells - Cells carry genetic information in the form of DNA
What are the 3 primary tools used to study cells? Microscopy, Autoradiography, Centrifugation
What are the 3 primary types of microscopes Compound light microscope, Phase contrast microscope, Electron microscope
What controls the amount of light passing through specimens using compound light microscopy diaphragm
Which types of microscopes are used to observe nonliving specimens Compound light microscopes and electron microscope
What type of microscope is used to observe living specimens Phase contrast microscope
Autoradiography uses what to trace and identify cell structures and biochemical activity radioactive molecules
What cellular process is autoradiography used to study protein synthesis - by labeling amino acids with radioactive isotopes DNA & RNA synthesis specifically
cell mixtures are separated in centrifugation by what quality cell type/density
cell fragments are separated in centrifugation based on _______ density
Prokaryotic DNA circular - concentrated in nucleoid region
Smaller rings of DNA plasmids - contain just a few genes
A purpose of plasmids allow cell to survive adverse conditions - explanation for antibiotic resistance
Where does respiration occur in the prokaryotic cell cell membrane
Centrioles are found in ______ cells eukaryotic animal
Cytosol contents free proteins, nutrients,solutes, cytoskeleton
Purpose of cytoskeleton give cell shape and anchor organelles aid in cell maintenance and intracellular transport
Organelles endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, vesicles, vacuoles, lysosomes, microbodies, mitochondria, chloroplasts, centrioles
Cholesterol molecules in phospholipid bilayer purpose cell fluidity
transport proteins membrane-spanning proteins that allow certain ions to pass through
cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) proteins that contribute to cell recognition and adhesion - important during development
Receptors glycoproteins that bind to specific molecules in the cell's external environment - may carry molecule into cell by pinocytosis
DNA is complexed with structural proteins called __________ to form _________ histones; chromosomes
Where is rRNA synthesized nucleolus
What is the site of protein production ribosomes
Where are ribosomes synthesized mucleolus
What is the smooth ER involved in lipid synthesis and etoxification of drugs and poisons
What pH are the enzymes of lysosomes maximized at? pH 5
What are the 2 types of microbodies peroxisomes and glyoxysomes
What is the role of peroxisomes contain oxidative enzymes that catalye a class of reactions in which peroxide is produced - break down fats into smaller molecules
Where are glyoxysomes found and what is their role found in fat tissue of germinating seedlings - used to convert fats into sugars until seedling is mature enought to produce its own sugar
What is the site of aerobic respiration mitochondria
What are the characteristics of the outer membrane of mitochondria smooth and acts as a sieve - allowing molecules to pass on basis of size
What is the area between outer and inner membrane of mitochondria called intemembrane space
What are the characteristics of the intermembrane space many convolutions called cristae, high protein content - contains many of the proteins of the electron transport chain
What is the area bound by inner membrane of mitochondria called mitochondrial matrix
What is the site of many of the reactions of respiration mitochondrial matrix
How do mitochondria differ from other organelles they are semiautonomus - they contain their own DNA (circular) and ribosomes, they self replicate by binary fission
What type of cells have cell walls? Plants and fungi
What are centrioles composed of? microtubules
Role of centriole spindle organization during cell division - direct separation of chromosomes
Where are the centrioles? Animals have a pair of centrioles that are oriented at right angles to one another in a region called the centrosome
What type of cells have centrioles? animal cells
Microtubules hollow rods made of polymerized tubulins that radiate throughout the cell and provide support
What provides the framework for organelle movement? microtubules
What are cilia and flagella specialized arrangements of? microtubules
Microfilaments solid rods of actin involved in cell movement and support
Muscle contraction based on interaction between what actin and myosin
What moves materials across plasma membrane microfilaments
intermediate filaments collection of fibers involved in maintenace of cytoskeletal integrity
In what ways can substances move in and out of a cells simple diffusion (osmosis), facilitated diffusion, active transport, endocytosis, exocytosis
Simple diffusion net movement of dissolved particles down their concentration gradient (high to low)
Which modes of transport of materials in and out of cells are passive processes? simple diffusion (osmosis), and facilitated diffusion
Osmosis simple diffusion of water
hypertonic solution describes the medium when cytoplasm has lower solute concentration than extracellular medium
If the medium is hypertonic, water will... flow out of cell, causing cell to shrink
hypotonic solution describes the medium when cytoplasm has higher solute concentration than the extracellular medium
If the medium is hypotonic, water will.... flow into the cell, causing it to sell
When concentrations of medium and cytoplasm are equal, the cell and medium are said to be isotonic - no net flow of water
Facilitated diffusion net movement of dissolved particles down their concentration gradient with the help of transport proteins
Active transport net movement of dissolved particles against their concentration gradient with the help of transport proteins
What maintains the membrane potentials in specialized cells such as neurons active transport
What are the 4 basic types of tissue epithelial tissue, connective tissue, nervous tissue, muscle tissue
epithelial tissue covers surfaces of body and lines the cavities; protects against injury, invasion and desiccation; involved in absorption, secretion and sensation
Connective tissue involved in... involved in body support
What is included in connective tissue bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, adipose tissue, and blood
Nervous tissue conposed of specialized cells (neurons) that are involved in the perception, processing, and storage of information
What are the 3 types of muscle tissue skeletal, cardiac, smooth
Viruses acellular structure composed of nucleic acid enclosed by a protein coat
Nucleic acid of viruses can be either _____ or _______ linear or circular
protein coat of a virus capsid
Bacteriophages Viruses that infect bacteria
Created by: susanivey