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BIO 202 Heart test

QuestionAnswer
Location of the heart in the body mediastinum; anterior to vertebral column, posterior to sternum
Pulmonary circuit right atrium-tricuspid valve-right ventricle-pulmonary arteries-lungs-pulmonary veins-left atrium
Systematic circuit left atrium-bicuspid valve-left ventricle-aorta-body tissues-superior and inferior vena cava-right atrium
Double walled sac around the heart Pericardium
3 layers of the pericardium fibrous layer, parietal layer, visceral layer
Separates the visceral and parietal layers of the serous pericardium pericardial cavity
Fibrous pericardium connective tissue, outer fibrous sac around heart
Serous pericardium parietal layer, visceral layer
Parietal layer of pericardium internal surface of fibrous pericardium (cavity wall)
Visceral layer of pericardium (Epicardium)lines the surface of the heart
Protects and anchors the heart and prevents overfilling of the heart with blood Pericardium
Layer that coronary blood vessels travel through Epicardium
Muscle layer of the heart myocardium
Allows heart to work in a relatively friction free environment Pericardium
Smooth lining for chambers of the heart, valves, and continuous lining of large blood vessels Endocardium
Receive blood in the heart Right and left atria
Pump blood into the arteries right and left ventricles
Functional blood supply to the muscle itself coronary circulation
Ensure blood delivery to the heart collateral routes
Left coronary artery divides into: anterior IV artery, circumflex artery
Right coronary artery divides into: Posterior IV, marginal arteries
Supplies blood to IV septum and anterior wall of ventricle Anterior IV artery
supplies left atrium and posterior wall of left ventricle circumflex artery
supplies posterior ventricle walls posterior IV artery
supplies lateral right chambers marginal artery
Coronary veins Great cardiac, anterior cardiac, small cardiac, and middle cardiac
All coronary veins drain into: Coronary sinus
Where does the coronary sinus empty The right atrium
Take blood from the body to the heart Veins
Take oxygenated blood to the heart arteries
Prevent backflow into atria when ventricles contract AV valves
Right AV valve 3 cusps; tricuspid valve
Left AV valve 2 cusps; mitral, bicuspid valve
Anchor AV valves to papillary muscles Chordae tendinae
lie between ventricle and aorta Aortic semilunar valve
lie between right ventricle and pulmonary trunk pulmonary semilunar valve
Prevent backflow of blood into the ventricles semiular valves
Where do the atria receive blood from superior and inferior vena cava and coronary sinus
Remnant of foramen ovale Fossa ovalis
Blood enters left atria from? pulmonary veins
internal ridges of myocardium in the right atrium pectinate muscles
Mark ventricular walls papillary muscles and trabeculae carnae
Pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk right ventricle
Pumps blood into the aorta left ventricle
When the bicuspid valve is open, the papillary muscles are ____ relaxed
When the atria contract, the AV valves are? open
When the ventricles are relaxed, the AV valves are? closed
What happens when the atria contract blood flows from atria to ventricles
What happens to the ventricles when atria contract They are relaxed and pressure drops
When the ventricles contract, the AV valves? close
What causes the AV valves to close during ventricular contraction papillary muscles contract and pull on chordae tendinae
What happens to the semilunar valves when ventricles contract they remain open
What happens to pressure when ventricles contract Pressure rises
How is blood prevented from flowing from ventricle back into atria Papillary muscles contract and chordae tendinae tighten so valve flaps can't evert into atria
Striated, short, fat, branched, interconnected muscle cardiac muscle
Cardiac muscle has that no other type of muscle has Intercalated discs
Intercalated discs anchor cardiac cells together and allow free passage of ions
Mitochondria in cardiac muscle large to resist fatigue
Stimulates cardiac muscle nerves and self-excitable cells
Makes electrical event longer in the heart muscle Calcium
Contracts as a unit cardiac muscle
Cardiac muscle contraction is similar to ______ contraction skeletal muscle
What makes myocardial contraction different from skeletal contraction action potential, calcium ions, and plateau
Action potential long absolute refractory period
What does the action potential rely on Na+, K+, and Ca2+ channels
Prevents wave summation and tetany absolute refractory period
Ensures the ventricles contract long enough to eject blood plateau
What happens before rapid depolarization Na+ channels open
Required rest between electrical impulses Absolute refractory period
What happens before repolarization occurs Na+ channels close, Ca2+ channels open, K+ channels open, Ca2+ channels close
Internal system of the heart intrinsic conduction system
Cardiac cells that initiate and distribute impulses to ensure orderly depolarization nodal cells
Pacemaker potential cell always fires on its own
What sets up depolarization Na+ leaks into the cell
Each depolarization=? one heart beat
Pacemaker that initiates heartbeat Sinoatrial (SA) node
Electrical gateway to ventricles Atrioventricular (AV) node
Delays the impulse by .1 second AV node
Impulses pass from atria to ventricles via _____ Atrioventricular bundle
Av bundle splits into 2 pathways in interventricular septum: bundle branches
Carry impulse toward apex of heart bundle branches
carry impulse to heart apex and ventricular walls Purkinje fibers
Happens to get muscle contractions cardiac intrinsic conduction
all action potentials of nodal and myocardial cells detected, amplified, and recorded by electrodes ECG
Sets the sinus rhythm SA node
Records electrical activity of the heart ECG
QRS complex=? one heartbeat
P wave SA node fires, atrial depolarization, Atria contract
Initiated by SA node firing P wave
Ventricles repolarize at apex and relaz T wave
Reach apex of heart at wave __ Q
QRS complex AV node fires, ventricular depolarization, ventricular systole (atrial repolarization and distole)
Striated, short, fat, branched, interconnected muscle cardiac muscle
Cardiac muscle has that no other type of muscle has Intercalated discs
Intercalated discs anchor cardiac cells together and allow free passage of ions
Mitochondria in cardiac muscle large to resist fatigue
Stimulates cardiac muscle nerves and self-excitable cells
Makes electrical event longer in the heart muscle Calcium
Contracts as a unit cardiac muscle
Cardiac muscle contraction is similar to ______ contraction skeletal muscle
What makes myocardial contraction different from skeletal contraction action potential, calcium ions, and plateau
Action potential long absolute refractory period
What does the action potential rely on Na+, K+, and Ca2+ channels
Prevents wave summation and tetany absolute refractory period
Ensures the ventricles contract long enough to eject blood plateau
What happens before rapid depolarization Na+ channels open
Required rest between electrical impulses Absolute refractory period
What happens before repolarization occurs Na+ channels close, Ca2+ channels open, K+ channels open, Ca2+ channels close
Internal system of the heart intrinsic conduction system
Cardiac cells that initiate and distribute impulses to ensure orderly depolarization nodal cells
Pacemaker potential cell always fires on its own
What sets up depolarization Na+ leaks into the cell
Each depolarization=? one heart beat
Pacemaker that initiates heartbeat Sinoatrial (SA) node
Electrical gateway to ventricles Atrioventricular (AV) node
Delays the impulse by .1 second AV node
Impulses pass from atria to ventricles via _____ Atrioventricular bundle
Av bundle splits into 2 pathways in interventricular septum: bundle branches
Carry impulse toward apex of heart bundle branches
carry impulse to heart apex and ventricular walls Purkinje fibers
Happens to get muscle contractions cardiac intrinsic conduction
all action potentials of nodal and myocardial cells detected, amplified, and recorded by electrodes ECG
Sets the sinus rhythm SA node
Records electrical activity of the heart ECG
QRS complex=? one heartbeat
P wave SA node fires, atrial depolarization, Atria contract
Initiated by SA node firing P wave
Ventricles repolarize at apex and relaz T wave
Reach apex of heart at wave __ Q
QRS complex AV node fires, ventricular depolarization, ventricular systole (atrial repolarization and distole)
When does atria contraction occur P-Q segment
When does ventricular contraction occur S-T segment
Where do the ventricles begin to depolarize Apex
Auscultation listening to valve function
Contraction of heart muscle is also called: Systole
Relaxation of heart muscle is also called: Diastole
First sound of heart sounds AV valves close
Signifies beginning of systole AV valves close
Second sound of heart sounds SL valves close
Beginning of ventricular diastole SL valves close
All events associated with blood flow through the heart Cardiac cycle
During atrial systole, ventricle is ____ diastole
Phase of the cardiac cycle where atria contract ventricular filling
Phase of cardiac cycle j
Phase of cardiac cycle where heart pressure is low and AV valves are open Ventricular filling
Blood enters atria and flows into ventricles, then atrial systole occurs Ventricular filling
Another name for isovolumetric contraction ventricular systole
Tension and pressure build during what phase of the cardiac cycle Ventricular systole
Phase of the cardiac cycle that opens the semilunar vavles Ventricular ejection
What phase of the cardiac cycle do atria relax Ventricular systole
During what phase of the cardiac cycle is blood moving/flowing Ventricular ejection
Early diastole, where ventricles relax Isovolumetric relaxation
Phases of the cardiac cycle ventricular filling, ventricular systole (contraction), ventricular ejectoin, isovolumetric relaxation
Relaxed ventricle volume (blood occupying the relaxed ventricles) EDV
Blood remaining in each ventricle after systole ESV
Amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute cardiac output
The amount of blood pumped out by a ventricle with each beat Stroke volume (SV)
End diastolic volume (EDV) - end systolic volume (ESV) SV
Heart rate x stroke volume cardiac output
Difference between resting and maximal CO cardiac reserve
Unbalanced ventricular output can lead to: pulmonary edema (fluid in lungs)
Amount ventricles are stretched by blood before they contract preload
Increased preload causes ____ contraction strength increased
Contraction force for a given preload (the strength of the heart) Contractility
Achieving big EDV Preload
Increases stroke volume preload and contraction force
Decreases stroke volume afterload
Back pressure exerted by blood in the large arteries leaving the heart Afterload
Detect changes in physical activity and feedback to medulla and adjust heart rate to what's appropriate Proprioceptors
Sense pressure in aorta and send real-time signals to cardiac center Baroreceptors
Sense blood pH, CO2, and O2 Chemoreceptors
Stimulates the heart cardioacceleratory center of the medulla
Inhibits the heart cardioinhibitory center of medulla
Stimulates the vagus nerve cardioinhibitory center
Sympathetic center in medulla cardioacceleratory center
increase in contractility comes from: positive inotropic factors
Increase in contractile strength, independent of stretch and EDV contractility
Negative inotropic factors increased extracellular K+, calcium channel blockers
Positive inotropic factors epinephrine, glucagon, thyroxine; Ca2+, some drugs
Effect of epinephrine and thyroxine on contraction force Makes harder contractions
Determines heart rate rate of depolarization in autorhythmic cells
Slows heart rate Parasympathetic innervation
Makes heart rate faster Sympathetic innervation/ epinephrine
Determines stroke volume force of contraction in ventricular myocardium
Influences stroke volume contractility, length-tension relationship of muscle fibers
Congestive heart failure pumping efficiency is so low that blood circulation can't meet the needs of tissue
Opening connecting the two atria to bypass pulmonary circuit foramen ovale
Becomes fossa ovalis in an adult Foramen ovalis
Connects aorta and pulmonary trunk Ductus arteriosus
Becomes ligamentum arteriosum in adult ductus arteriosus
Three major types of vessels arteries, capillaries, veins
Carry blood away from the heart arteries
Carry blood toward the heart veins
Contact tissue cells and serve cellular needs Capillaries
Arteries that feed directly into capillary beds Arterioles
Three tunics of arteries and veins tunica intima/interna, media, externa
Central blood containing space Lumen
Vessels composed of one layer capillaries (endothelium)
Tunica that is an endothelial layer lining lumen Tunica inerna
Tunica that is a smooth muscle and elastic fiber layer Tunica media
Tunica that reduces friction Tunica interna
Controls vasoconstriction/dilation of vessels Tunica media
Tunica regulated by sympathetic nervous system Tunica media
Tunica that is collagen fibers Tunica externa
Strengthens blood vessels and prevents blood pressure from rupturing them Tunica media
Protect and reinforce vessels tunica externa
Anchors vessels and provides passage for small nerves and lymphatic vessels Tunica externa
Thick media and no vavles Arteries
Contains valves and has large lumen vessels
Most of the blood in the body is in the ____ at any given time Veins
Capacitance vessels veins
Conduct blood to big regions of the body elastic (conducting) arteries
Thick-walled arteries near the heart elastic arteries
Why are arteries sometimes called resistance vessels They have relatively strong, resilient tissue structure that resists high blood pressure
Vessels that resist high blood pressure arteries
Resistance vessels arteries
Deliver blood to body organs Muscular arteries
Thich tunica media with more smooth muscle and active in vasosconstriction Muscular arteries
Muscular arteries branch into: arterioles
Smallest arteries that lead to capillary beds arterioles
Control flow into capillary beds via vasodilation/constriction arterioles
The smallest blood vessels capillaries
Walls consisting of thin tunica interna one cell thick capillaries
Stabilize capilarry walls and can contract to regulate blood flow Pericytes
Diffuse easily through capillaries lipid soluble substances (steroid hormones, O2, CO2
3 structural types of capillaries:
Filtrated out of capilarries O2, H2O, glucose, electrolytes, hormoens
Reabsorbed into capillaries CO2, metabolic waste, H2O, hormones
Capillaries that are abundant in skin and muscles Continuous capillaries
Found wherever active capillary absorption or filtration occurs Fenestrated capillaries
Where are fenestrated capillaries located Small intestines, endocrine glands, and kidneys
Fenestrated capillaries in small intestines absorb lots of nutrients
Fenestrated capillaries in endocrine glands taking/giving hormones
Fenestrated capillaries in kidneys filter blood/reabsorption
Characterized by an endothelium riddled with pores Fenestrated capillaries
Highly modified, leaky capillaries Sinusoids
Capillaries with large lumens Sinusoids
Capillaries found in liver,bone marrow, spleen, lymphoid tissue, and some endocrine organs Sinusoids
Capillaries that allow large molecules to pass between blood Sinusoids
Capillaries where blood flows sluggishly Sinusoids
Cuff of smooth muscle that surrounds each true capillary Precapillary sphincter
Regulates blood flow into the capillary Precapillary sphincter
Capacitance vessels veins
Vessels with a greater capacity for blood containment Veins
Vessels with then walls and less muscular and elastic tissue Veins
Vessels with steady blood flow Veins
Vessels with relatively low blood pressure veins
Where is blood pressure the lowest superior vena cava
Formed when venules converge Veins
Circulatory route heart-arteries-arterioles-capillaries-venules-veins
Blood flows through 2 consecutive capillary networks before returning to heart Portal system
The point where 1 blood vessels merge Anastomoses
Blood flow = ? CO in vessels
Most important to influence blood pressure resistance in valves
Blood flow is directly proportional to? difference in blood pressure between 2 different points in circulation
Force per unit are exerted on the wall of a blood vessel by its contained blood Blood pressure
Provides driving force that keeps blood moving from higher to lower pressure areas differences in BP within vascular system
Blood pressure is extremely high in: aorta
3 important sources of resistance blood viscosity, total blood vessel length, and vessel radius
Most powerful influence over blood flow Vessel radius
Major determinants of peripheral resistance small-diameter arterioles
Pressure results when? flow is opposed by resistance
Systematic pressure is highest in: aorta
Steepest change in blood pressure occurs in: arterioles
Arteriole blood pressure reflects 2 factors of arteries close to heart: elasticity and amount of blood forced into them
Pressure exerted on arterial walls during ventricular contraction systolic pressure
diastolic pressure pressure remaining in vessels
Pressure sensitive to peripheral resistance diastolic pressure
Blood pressure that is steady and changes little during the cardiac cycle Venous BP
Pressure changes created during breathing respiratory pump
Required to maintain blood pressure cooperation of heart, vessels, and kidneys; supervision of the brain
Main factors influencing blood pressure CO, PR, BV
Blood pressure = ? CO x PR
2 things that determine CO venous return, neural and hormonal controls
Resting heart rate controlled by cardioinhibitory center via vagus nerves
Stroke volume controlled by venous return
Increases heart rate and stroke volume under stress cardioacceleratory center
3 short term controls of blood pressure local, neural, hormonal
Long term control of blood pressure regulate blood volume
Ability of tissues to regulate their own blood supply Autoregulation
What happens to vessles when wastes are removed they constrict
If blood supply is cut off and then restored blood flow... increases above normal
Reactive hyperemia blood flow cut off then restored, BF increases above normal
Angiogenesis growth of new blood vessels
Local control of BP: autoregulation, reactive hyperemia, angiogenesis
Neural control of BP: CNS and ANS; medulla oblongata
Exerts sympathetic control over blood vessels throughout body vasomotor center of Medulla oblongata
Stimulates most vessles to constrict medulla oblongata
Dilates vessels in skeletal and cardiac muscle to meet demands of exercise medulla oblongata
Increased blood pressure causes ___ baroreceptor signals increased
Baroreceptors stimulate cardioinhibitory center to cause: vasodilation, decrease HR, CO, PR, BP, decrease sympathetic tone
Decreased BP stimulates cardioacceleratory center to: increase CO and PR, increase sympathetic tone and vasoconstriction
Epinephrine and norepihephrine on lood pressure increase short term
Hormone that increases blood pressure long term Aldosterone
Promotes water retention and raises BP ADH
Generates angiotensin II release of renin from kidneys
Hormonea that cause vasoconstriction Angiotensin II, ADH
Hormones that increase BP ADH, AG2, Aldosterone, epinephrine
Chemicals that decrease BP ANP, NO, inflammatory chemicals, alcohol
Antagonist to aldosterone that decreases BP ANP
Increases urinary sodium excretion to cause BV and pressure to decline ANP
Chemical that is a brief but potent vasodilator NO
Inhibits ADH and causes BP to drop alcohol
Adapt to chronic high or low BP baroreceptors
Created by: beshoe