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Lecture Ch. 22

The Respiratory System

main function of the respiratory system supply O2 to the cells and remove CO2 from thh body
P component of the resp system Pulmonary ventilation-breathing-air in and out of lungs
T component of the resp system Transport-movement of gases between the lungs and cells by the blood
I component of the resp system Internal respiration-exchange of gases between blood and cells
E component of the resp system external respiration-gas exchange between the air and the blood
where gas exchange occurs in the alveoli respiratory zone
passageways gas exchange---cleanse humidify and warm the incoming air conducting zone
Nose external nose and nasal cavity
nostrils or nares external openings only
bridge formed by the nasal bones and rest of external nose is cartilage
divides the nasal cavity into right and left nasal septum
separates the nasal and oral cavities palate...anterior-hard palate--posterior--soft palate
nasal cavity line with what type of tissue PCCE with goblet cells
tisssue beneath the nasal mucosa vasucal and bleeds easily
located on the LATERAL walls of the nasal cavity nasal conchae
cause turbulence and increase surface area. clean warn and humidfy the air nasal conchae
surround the nasal cavity and drain into it paranasal sinuses
inflammation of nasal mucosa rhinitis
inflammation of sinuses sinusitis
extends from the nasal cavity to the esophagus and larynx the pharynx (throat)
posterior to the nasal cavity nasopharynx
prevent food and liquid from entering soft palate rises and closes the nasopharynx
contains ppharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) and openings the the pharyngotympanic tubes which drain the middle ear nasopharynx
location of the oropharynx posterior to the oral cavity extends from the soft palate to the top of the epiglottis
contains palatine tonsils and the lingual tonsil oropharynx
tissue of the oropharynx startified squamous epithelium
from the top of epiglottis to the laryngeal and esophaeal openings laryngopharynx
main function of the larynx (voicebox) route air and food to proper channels. produces the voice
larynx is made of waht 9 cartilages connected by ligaments and memranes
cartilages of the larynx thyroid cartilage-shield shaped--adams apple AND cricoid cartilage-ring below thyroid cartilage--attached to top of trachea
attaches to the top of thyroid cartilage epiglottis-swallowing pulls the larynx superiorly and the epiglottis covers the laryngeal inlet
food or liquid in the larynx causes the cough reflect which only works when conscious T or F TRUE
inflammation of the larynx laryngitis...causes hoarseness
air forced out between the coval cords creates voice. The tension on the cocal ligaments can be varied. T or F TRUE
type of tissue above vocal cords...what is below the cords? above-simple squamous epithelium...below-respiratory mucosa
mucosa that covers the vocal ligaments true vocal cords or vocal folds.
the true vocal cords, and opeing in between them is called the glottis
extends from the larynx to the main bronchi the trachea (windpipe)
ciliated mucosa in the trachea...what does smoking do? smoking impairs and destroys the cilia
C-shaped cartilage rings in the tracheal wall precent collapse and allow the esophagus to bluge into the posterior aspect of the trachea when food is swallowed
branch point is called carina...irritation causes the cough relfex
right and left bronchi enter the hilum of each lung
right bronchi is more vertical and likely for foreign objects to lodge here T or F TRUE
go to each lobe of the lungs. 2 left 3 on right lobar bronchi
go to the segments of each lobe segmental bronchi
smallest airways and less than 1 mm in diameter. The entire network of airways is called the bronchial tree bronicoles
as airways become smaller, they contain relatively less cartilage, more smooth muscle, and fewer cilia. The bronchiles contain no cartilage and thus can collase. T or F TRUE
contain alveoli (air sacs) repiratory zone structure
tissue of the walls of alveoli simple squamous epithelia cells
alveolar wall + capillariy wall form respiratory membrane...O2 and CO2 pass through by simple diffusion. O2 moves into the blood and CO2 moves out
these remove bacteria in the bronchi alveolar macrophages
how many lobes does the right lung have? left lung? right-2 superior and inferior; left-3 superior middle and inferior
each lobe of the lung is divided into segments-each segment has its own bronchus and vessels
apex of the lung; base of the lung superior tip; suface that rests on diaphragm
each lung is suspended w/in its own pleural cavity TRUE
the lung root contains the main bronchi, pulmonary vessels, nerves and lymphatics tha tenter and exit the lung. These structures enter the lung at the hilum TRUE
lungs innervated by what kind of fibers motor
bronchioles are constrictued by the what fibers and dilated by what fibers parasymphathetic ...dilated by symphathetic
the parietal pleura covers the thoracic wall, diaphragm, fibrous pericardium
visceral pleura covers external lung surface following its contours and fissures
space between the pleural layers and contains a small amout of pleural fluid pleural cavity
keeps the pleural surfaces together and the lung expanded no air in the pleural space
excess pleural fluid pleural effusion
the parietal pleura cocvers the thoracic wall the diaphragm the fibrous pericardium true
the visceral pleura covers the external lung surface following its contours and fissures true
Created by: 1671530535



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