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Chapter 10

Endocrine System

QuestionAnswer
In a negative feedback mechanism, when the effect of a hormone increases, the secretion of the hormone? Decreases
A regulating mechanism that contains its own brake is called a? Negative feedback mechanism
The hormones that a cell will respond to are determined by? Receptors
The secretions of endocrine glands are called? Hormones
Hormones enter ________ and circulate in the blood. Capillaries
Hormones may be classified in ___ groups. Three
Hormones may be classified in three groups based on their? Chemical structure
What are the three groups hormones may be classified in? Amines, proteins, steroids
Amines, proteins, and steriods are the three groups ________ may be classified in. Hormones
The pituitary gland is enclosed and protected by the? Sphenoid bone
The sphenoid bone encloses and protects the? Pituitary gland
The thyroid gland is on the ________ side of the trachea. Anterior
The thyroid gland is on the anterior side of the trachea just below the? Larynx
The parathyroid glands are located on the _______ sides of the lobes of the thyroid gland Posterior
The parathyroid glands are located on the posterior sides of the lobes of the? Thyroid gland
The pancreas is located in the? Upper abdominal cavity
The pancreas is located in the upper abdomoinal cavity between the? Duodenum and the spleen
The adrenal glands are located on top of the? Kidneys
Are the testes located outside or inside the abdominal cavity? Outside
The testes are located outside the abdominal cavity in the? Scrotum
The _____ are located outside the abdominal cavity in the scrotum. Testes
What are the two parts of the pituitary gland called? Anterior and posterior pituitary glands
The posterior pituitary gland stores 2 hormones produced by the? Hypothalamus
The anterior pituitary glands secretes its hormones in response to? Releasing hormones
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) may also be called? Vasopression
Vasopressions target organs are the? Kidneys
Vasopression is another name for? Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
What is the function of ADH? To increase reabsorption
ADH increases the reabsoption of what? Water
ADH increases the reabsorption of water by the? Kidneys
Oxytocins target organs are? Uterus and mammory glands
Oxytocin causes ________ of the smooth muscle. Contractions
Oxytocin causes contractions of the? Smooth muscle
Oxytocin causes contractions of the smooth muscle for? Delivery
Oxytocin causes contractions of the smooth muscle for delivery of? Baby and placenta
Oxytocin causes the realse of? Milk
The growth hormone (GH)increases the transport of? Amino acids
GH increases the transport amino acids into cells and the synthesis of? Proteins
GH _______ the rate of mitosis. Increases
GH increases the rate of? Mitosis
GH increases the use of ______ for energy. Fats
The stimulus for sectetion of GH is? GHRH from the hypothalamus
The secretion OF GH is inhibited by? GHIH from the hypothalamus
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) target organ is? Thyroid gland
The thyroid gland is the target organ for what hormone? Thyroid stimulating hormone
TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete? Thyroxine and T3
Thyroxine and T3 are secreted by? Thyroid gland
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) target organs are? Adrenal cortex
The function of ACTH is to stimulate the adrenal cortex to secrete? Cortisol
ACTH stimulates the ________ to secrete cortisol. Adrenal cortex
Prolactins target organs are? Mammary glands
Prolactin causes the production of ________ in the mammary glands. Milk
Prolactin causes the production of milk in the? Mammary glands
Follicle stimulating hormone target organs in women are? Ovaries
Follicle stimulating hormone target organs in men are? Testes
In women; FSH initiates the development of? Egg cells
In women; FSH increases the secretion of the hormone? Estrogen
In men; FSH initiates the production of? Sperm
Luteinizing hormone (LH) target organs in women are? Ovaries
Luteinizing hormone (LH) target organ in men is? Testes
The hormone LH in women causes? Ovulation
Ovulation is the release of a mature egg from an? Ovarian follicle
The hormone LH in men causes the testes to secrete the hormone? Testosterone
Both FSH and LH may be called _______ hormones. Gonadotropic
T3 and T4 increase the synthesis of ________ with in cells. Proteins
T3 and T4 increase the rate of? Cell respiration
T3 and T4 increse the rate of cell respiration of? Carbohydrates, fats, excess amino acids
The mineral necessary for the synthesis of thyroxine and T3 is? Iodine
The stimulus for secretion of thyroxine and T3 is? TSH
Calcitonins target organs are the? Bones
Calcitonin decreses the ____________ of calcium and phosphate. Reabsorption
Calctonin decreases the reabsorption of calcium and phospate from the? Bones
The stimulus for secretion of calcitonin is? Hypercalcemia
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) target organs are? Bones, small intestine, kidneys
PTH increases the _________ of calcium and phosphate. Reabsorption
PTH increases the reabsorption of calcium and phosphate from? Bones to the blood
PTH increases the ________ of Ca and P from food. Absorption
PTH increases the absorption of Ca and P from foods in the? Small intestine
PTH increases the ________ of calcium by the kidneys. Reabsorption
PTH increased the reabsorption of calcium by the? Kidneys
PTH stimulates the kidneys to activate? Vitamin D
PTH stimulates the ________ to activate vitamin D. Kidneys
Secretion of PTH is stimulated by? Hypocalcemia
Secretion of PTH is inhibited by? Hypercalcemia
The endocrine glands of the pancreas are called? Islets of langerhauns
The endocrine glands of the pancreas contain _________ cells. Alpha and beta
Alpha cells produce the hormone? Glucagon
Beta cells produce the hormone? Insulin
Glucagons primary target organ is? Liver
Glucagon causes the liver to convert stored _______ to glucose. Glycogen
Glucose is used for? Energy production
Glucagon _________ the use of fats and amino acids for energy production. Increases
The stimulus for the secretion of glucagon is? Hypoglycemia
Insulin causes the ________ to change glucose to glycogen to be stored. Liver
Glycogen is also stored in? Skeletal muscles
Insulin increases the intake of? Amino acids and fatty acids
The stimulus for secretion of insulin is? Hyperglycemia
Name the two parts of the adrenal gland. Adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla
The term catecholamines is a collective term for what hormones? Epinephrine, norepinephrine
Epinephrine and norepinephrine are secreted by the? Adrenal medulla
The adrenal cortex secretes a group of hormones called? Mineralocorticoids
The adrenal cortex secretes a group of hormones called? Glucocorticoids
Norepinephrine primary target organs are? Blood vessels
Norepinephrine causes __________ throughout the body. Vasocontriction
Vasoconstriction __________ blood pressure. Raises
Epinephrine effect on the heart: Increase heartrate
Epinephrine effect on the blood vessels in the skeletal muscle: Vasodilation
Epinephrine effect on the skin and viscera: Vasoconstriction
Epinephrine effect on the intestines: Decreases perestalsis
Epinephrine effect on bronchioles: Dilation
Epinephrine effect on liver: Conversion of glycogen to glucose
Epinephrine effect on use of fats for energy: Increases use
The stimulus for both epinephrine and norepinephrine is? Sympathetic
Aldosterone target organs are the? Kidneys
Aldosterone _________ the reabsorption of sodium ions by the kidneys. Increases
Aldosterone __________ the excretion of potassium ions by the kidneys. Increases
Adosterone helps maintain normal? Blood volume, blood pressure
Cortisol increases the use of amino acids and fats for? Energy production
Cortisol increases the use of ________ for energy production. Amino acids, fats
Cortisol decreases the use of ________ for energy. Glucose
Cortisol _________ the use of glucose for energy. Decreases
Cortisol has as anti-inflammatory effct, which prevents? Excessive tissue destruction.
The stimulus for secretion of cortisol is? ACTH
Estrogen target organs include? Uterus, mammary glands
Estrogen promotes _________ of the ovum in the ovarian follicle. Maturation
Estrogen promotes growth of blood vessels in the _________ if the uterus Endometrium
Estrogen promotes the development of the female secondary? Sex characteristics
Progesterone target organs are? Mammary glands, uterus
Progesterone increases the growth of? Blood vessels
Progesterone increases the storage of ________ in the endometrium of the uterus. Glycogen
Progesterone promotes growth of ________ cells in the mammary glands. Secretory
The stimulus for secretion of progesterone is? LH
Inhibin target organs are? Aterior pituitary, hypothalamus
Inhibin decreases the secretion of? FSH, GnRH
Testosterone target organs are? Testes, bones
Testosterone promotes maturation of? Sperm in the testes
Testosterone promotes the development of the male secondary? Sex characteristics
Testosterone ________ growth in height. Stops
The stimulus for secretion of testosterone is? LH
Inhibin target organ is? Anterior pituitary gland
Inhibin decreases the secretion of? FSH
The stimulus for secretion of inhibin is? Increased testosterone
Melatonin is produced by the? Pinel gland
Melatonin helps bring about? Sleep
Prostaglandins are made by cells from the ____________ of their cell membranes. Phosolipids
Prostaglandins usually exert their effects? Locally
The bonding of the hormone to cell receptors stimulates the formation of? Cyclic AMP
Cyclic AMP activates _______ within the cell. Enzymes
Steroid hormones are ______ in the lipids of cell membranes. Soluable
The steroid hormone combines with a ________ in the cytoplasm of the cell. Receptor
Created by: laceychapman