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Anatomy Pelvis

Pelvis and perineum

1. What separates the pelvis from the perineum? Pelvic diaphragm
2. What muscles make up the urogenital diaphragm? Deep transverse perineal muscles
3. What muscles make up the pelvic diaphragm floor? 1. Puborectalis 2. Pubococcygeus 3. Iliococcygeus 4.Coccygeus
4. Internal female genital organs 1. Ovaries 2. fallopian tubes 3. Uterus 4.vagina 5.located in the lesser pelvis
5. External female genital organs 1. labia major 2. labia minor 3. Clitoris 4. vestibule of vagina 5. located in perineum
6. What is smegma? cheesy, oily substance that can be found in penis of uncircumcised men, carcinogenic to the cervix
7. What is the sheath of the peritoneum of the uterus called? broad ligament of the uterus
8. What attaches the ovaries to the uterus? Ovarian ligament
9. What attaches the ovaries to the abdominal wall? Suspensory ligament
10. What anchors the uterus in place? round ligament
11. What type of epithelium is found in the uterus? simple high columnar
12. What is laminarium? a plant that is stuck up in the cervix, it absorbs water and gradually dilates the cervix – abortion
13. What can cause habitual abortions? incompetent internal os
14. What surgery is done to fix this problem? shirodka/Mcdonald- the cervix until about the 7th month of pregnancy
15. Blood supply of uterus: 1. Uterine artery 2. Ovarian artery
16. What are leiomyomas/fibroids? 1. Benign tumors that are sensitive to estrogen 2. Cause intermenstral bleeding 3. Makes vaginal delivery difficult
17. What is a pap smear? 1. Cervical examination 2. Used to detect cervical cancer
18. What orientation does the uterus have? 90 degrees antiflexion from bladder
19. What is a uterine prolapse? uterus bulges into the vagina- round ligament stretched
20. What sheds during menstruation? Endometrium (functional layer- basal always stays)
21. Phase 1 and characteristic of menstrual cycle: desquamation and regeneration 1. days 1-4 2. Increase estrogen 3. Progesterone disappears 4. Wound heals
22. Phase 2 and characteristic of menstrual cycle: Proliferation 1. days 5-15 2. ovulation (egg release) day 13 or 14 3. controlled by estrogen 4. functional layer grows 5. glands enlarged 6. spiral arteries form 7. temperature rises
23. Phase 3 and characteristic of menstrual cycle: Secretion 1. days 15-28 2. controlled by progesterone 3. arteries contract 4.ischemia follows (tissue dies?)
24. What is the importance of the cilia in the Fallopian tube? produce current for migration of egg and sperm
25. Where is the typical site of fertilization? ampulla
26. What is an ectopic pregnancy? 1. Implantation of fetus occurs in place other than uterus 2. Causes acute abdomen 3. typically leads to spontaneous abortion
27. What is the parasympathetic innervations of the urinary bladder? pelvic splanchnic N.
28. What is the maximum volume the bladder can hold? 700 ml
29. What is the volume of urine that leads to the urge to urinate? 350 ml
30. Where does the urethra leave the bladder? trigone
31. Where do the ureters enter the bladder? trigone
32. What epithelium lines the bladder? transitional
33. What drains into the prostatic sinus? prostatic secretion
34. What is the ejaculatory duct? vas deferens and seminal vesicles join
35. What do the seminal vesicles secrete? alkaline solution and fructose
36. What innervates the deep transverse perineal muscle? pudendal N.
37. What gland (in male) is responsible for lubricating the urethra? bulbourethral gland –cowper’s gland
38. What is this gland called in the female? Bartholin’s gland
39. What is the most vulnerable portion of the male urethra? membranous (because it is less mobile)
40. Which primitive urogenital sinus develops in females? Mullerian duct
41. Which primitive urogenital sinus develops in males? Wolffian duct
42. What glands (in female) are homologous to prostate gland? paraurethral glands
43. Why is the female urinary tract more prone to infections? shorter and closer to the anus
44. What suspends the testis in the scrotum? spermatic cord
45. Pathway of sperm: Seminiferous tubules Epididymis Vas deferens Ejaculatory duct Nothing Urethra Penis
46. What is the thermoregulator of the testis? pampiniform venous plexus
47. What is the blood supply to the testis? testicular (gonadal) arteries
48. What is the function of the Dartos fascia? contraction causes scrotum to wrinkle (prevents heat loss)
49. Where does the external spermatic fascia originate from? external abdominal oblique m.
50. Where does the cremaster muscle originate from? internal abdominal oblique m.
51. Where does the tunica vaginalis originate from? peritoneum
52. Where do the seminal vesicles open into to produce ejaculatory ducts? ductus deferens (vas deferens)
53. What is BPH? 1. Benign prostatic hyperplasia 2. checked for through anus 3. leads to difficulty with urination 4. enlargement of the prostate
54. Why are PSA levels checked? Prostatic serum antigen- elevated levels - cancer
55. What is the lowest part of the trunk? perineum
56. What is an erection controlled by? parasympathetic system : S2- S4 dilation of the blood vessels
57. What is emission controlled by? sympathetic system L1-L2 – semen is delivered to the prostatic urethra
58. What is ejaculation controlled by? 1. sympathetic system L1-L2- close internal urethral sphincter 2. parasympathetic system – S2-S4- urethral muscle contraction 3. somatic system- pudendal n. (voluntary) – contraction of bulbospongiosus m.
59. What controls the relaxation of the penis? Sympathetic system L1-L2 – helicine arteries contract
60. What is phimosis? 1. prepuce of penis is too tight over glans and cannot be retracted 2. smegma causes irritation of gland 3. fixed with circumcision
61. What is paraphimosis? 1. retraction of the prepuce over the glans constricts the neck of the glans 2. interferes with blood supply 3. fixed with circumcision
62. When is episiotomy performed? in childbirth, when there is danger of the perineum tearing
63. What is the border between the true and false pelvis? pelvis aperture/brim/inlet
64. What muscle is the pelvic diaphragm? levator ani muscle
63. Make sure to look at blood supply of pelvis (male vs. female): pg. 300
65. Are the ovaries covered by the peritoneum? no
66. What does the suspensory ligament of the ovaries contain? the ovarian artery and vein
67. In whom is the peritoneal cavity closed? males
68. What does a closed peritoneal cavity in females lead to? 1. infertility 2. doglass pouch would catch an egg if the fimbriae miss the egg (invetrofertilization)
69. What is a histerosalpingography? 1. inject contrast medium in the vagina 2. should go all the way through the fallopian tubes and drip into the peritoneal cavity 3. done if infertility is an issue to verify the correctness of the reproductive system
70. How many eggs does a woman have typically? 1. 450 2. eggs frozen in meiosis 1 until fertilized
71. What can a retroverted uterus cause? 1. miscarriage (spontaneous abortions) 2. pain in intercourse
72. What does Nullipara mean? never having given birth
73. What happens to the uterine muscles in pregnancy? 1. Hyperplasia 2. hypertrophia –increase volume of muscles- stretch 3. regresses after birth of child
74. What is the innervation of the uterus? both sympathetic and parasympathetic: pelvic splanchnic n. (S2-S4)
75. What layer of the uterus is not shed? basal layer
76. What is salpingitis? 1. also called PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) 2. Inflammation 3. infection (can be gonorrhea or clamydia) 4. occurs in fallopian tubes 5. may lead to loss of epithelium (which can interfere with fertilization)
77. What are the 4 parts of the male urethra? 1. Preprostatic 2. Prostatic 3. Membranous 4. spongy parts
78. What are the characteristics of the prostatic urethra? 1. most dilated 2. ends where urethra is covered by external urethral sphincter 3. has urethral crest 4. has prostatic sinus (prostatic ductules open into here) 5. 4 cm long 6. location is inside prostate
79. Cross section of penis look at picture.********
80. What is the prostatic utricle? Blind opening – remnant of female genital organ
81. What controls the external sphincter of the bladder? pudendal nerve (voluntary)- Most of the pelvis- when in doubt- choose this one
82. What is the innervation of the testis? 1. sympathetic: T7 greater splanchnic N. 2. parasympathetic: vagus nerve
83. Where do the lymphatics of the testis/scrotum drain? 1. testis: preaortic and lumbar lymph nodes 2. scrotum: superficial inguinal lymph nodes
84. What is the dilation of the Vas deferens called (right before it joins the duct of the seminal vesicle)? ampulla of vas deferens
85. What do you tie in the male to prevent fertilization? vas deferens
86. What is the largest accessory gland of the male? prostate
87. Describe the secretion of the prostate: 1. Acidic 2. proteases- breaks down protein 3. citric acid 4. Spermine 5. Spermidine 6. prostaglandins
88. What plexuses does the prostatic venous plexus communicate with? 1. vesical and venous plexus 2. internal vertebral venous plexus
89. Describe the different types of fluid collection in the testis: 1. hydrocele: fluid/water- pink when light is shinned on it 2. hematocele:blood (painful)- red when light is shinned on it 3. spermatocele: fluid containing spermatozoa (sometimes painful)- between testis and epidiymis
90. Where is the perineum? between ischial tuberosities, extending from pubic symphysis to the coccyx bone
91. What innervates all the perineal muscles? pudendal nerve
92. What does contraction of the bulbospongiosus m. during intercourse cause? pain
93. What is hypospadias? 1. Congenital 2. external urethral orifice opens on ventral aspect of glans penis 3. because urogenital folds failed to fuse in embryonic life
20. Whats not contained in the rectus sheath? 1. Illiohypogastric N. 2. Illioinguinal N.)
Created by: xchengster



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